El Ejido, Spain
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News Article | May 19, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Culinary treatments (boiling, microwaving, grilling, and deep frying) influence on proximate composition and antioxidant capacity of most cultivated mushrooms worldwide. A study by Spanish researchers has shown that microwaving and grilling are the best processes to maintain the nutritional profile of mushrooms. Mushrooms are considered valuable health foods, since they have a significant amount of dietary fiber and are poor in calories and fat. Moreover, they have a good protein content (20-30% of dry matter) which includes most of the essential amino acids; also provide a nutritionally significant content of vitamins (B1, B2, B12, C, D and E) and trace minerals such as zinc or selenium. Mushrooms are also an important source of biologically active compounds with potential medicinal value such as betaglucans. The most mushrooms are commonly cooked before being consumed. Scientists from Mushroom Technological Research Center of La Rioja (CTICH) aimed to evaluate the influence of different cooking methods (boiling, microwaving, grilling and frying) on proximate composition, betaglucans content and antioxidant activity of four cultivated mushrooms species. The study was conducted on the most widely consumed mushrooms worldwide: Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom), Lentinula edodes (shiitake), Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) and Pleurotus eryngii (king oyster mushroom). They were harvested from the cultivation rooms at CTICH facilities. After the cooking process, raw and cooked mushrooms were then freeze-dried, and the proximate composition and the antioxidant activity were analyzed. The results of this study, published in the International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, revealed that frying induced more severe losses in protein, ash, and carbohydrates content but increased the fat and energy. Boiling improved the total glucans content by enhancing the betaglucans fraction. A significant decrease was detected in the antioxidant activity especially after boiling and frying, while grilled and microwaved mushrooms reached higher values of antioxidant activity. "Frying and boiling treatments produced more severe losses in proteins and antioxidants compounds, probably due to the leaching of soluble substances in the water or in the oil, which may significantly influence the nutritional value of the final product" says Irene Roncero, one of the authors of the paper. "When mushrooms were cooked by microwave or grill, the content of polyphenol and antioxidant activity increased significantly, and there are no significant losses in nutritional value of the cooked mushrooms" says Roncero. The researcher clarifies that adding a little oil portion while grilling mushrooms is not a problem. "This minimal amount will not cause nutrient loses by leaching; in fact, the antioxidant capacity can be even improved. Moreover, if olive oil is used, the fatty acid profile of the final preparation is enhanced with barely increase in the calorie content." Roncero underlines that the cooking technique clearly influences the nutritional value and the antioxidant activity of mushrooms so that "the adequate selection of the culinary method is a key factor to preserve the nutritional profile of this highly consumed food." In this study the CTICH collaborated with the Estacion Experimental del Zaid?n (CSIC, Granada) to analyze the antioxidant activity of the raw and cooked mushrooms. Irene Roncero-Ramos, Mónica Mendiola-Lanao, Margarita Pérez-Clavijo, Cristina Delgado-Andrade. "Effect of different cooking methods on nutritional value and antioxidant activity of cultivated mushrooms". International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 68 (3): 287-297, 2017. http://dx.


Vidoy-Mercado I.,IFAPA Consejeria de Agricultura y Pesca | Imbroda-Solano I.,IFAPA Consejeria de Agricultura y Pesca | Barcelo-Munoz A.,IFAPA Consejeria de Agricultura y Pesca | Viruel M.A.,Estacion Experimental | Pliego-Alfaro F.,University of Malaga
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Nodal segments from mature olive (Olea europaea L.) plants of 'Arbequina' were successively micrografted (up to five times) onto juvenile rootstoks. The in vitro rooting competence of regenerated shoots increased from 13 to 61 % from the first to the fifth micrograft respectively. Rooted plants were acclimated under a plastic tunnel and transferred to the greenhouse; after two years these plants were used as source of cuttings for conventional propagation. Micropropagated plants were also analysed by using the SSRs technique and showed to be true to type. Cuttings obtained from donor plants of the fifth micrograft showed a rooting percentage of 92%. This study indicates that revitalization of adult material through micrografting can increase the rooting capacity of cuttings derived from the rejuvenated plants.


Forner-Giner M.A.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Agrarias Ivia | Hueso J.J.,Estacion Experimental | Aguera J.M.,Estacion Experimental | Legua P.,University Miguel Hernández | Forner J.B.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Agrarias Ivia
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2011

The aim was to study the performance of Navelate sweet orange on five rootstocks: Carrizo citrange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.]; Cleopatra mandarin (C. reshni Hort. ex Tan.); C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. and two new hybrids C-13 (C. depressa Hay. × P. trifoliata) developed at the University of California Citrus Research Center and 020326 [Troyer citrange (C. sinensis × P. trifoliata) × Cleopatra mandarin] developed at the Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias in Valencia, Spain. The investigation was conducted in Almería, Spain. The soil was sandy, with pH>8 and electric conductivity in the saturation extract below 4.5 mmhos cm -1. The design was a complete-block with randomised singletree plots and eight replications. Tree spacing was 4.5 m × 4 m. Yield was recorded during the first nine harvests, fruit quality was determined for the 5 th, 6 th and 9 th harvests and tree size was evaluated 11 years after planting. Trees on C. volkameriana rootstock produced the highest yield and largest fruits. Trees on the C-13 hybrid selection were the most yield-efficient on a canopy volume basis, and had fruit with the highest soluble solid content, but there were few differences between rootstocks for the latter parameter. Cleopatra mandarin and 020326 induced the lowest individual fruit weight and diameter.


Angeles Forner-Giner M.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Agrarias | Hueso J.J.,Estacion Experimental | Aguera J.M.,Estacion Experimental | Forner J.B.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Agrarias
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2010

This study, carried out in Almería (Spain), evaluates the performance of 'Clausellina' mandarin on four rootstocks: Carrizo citrange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb. x Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.]; C. volkameriana Ten. and Pasq.; and, the two new hybrids 'C-13' (C. depressa Hay. x P. trifoliata) obtained at the University of California Citrus Research Center and '020326' [Troyer citrange (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata) x Cleopatra mandarin] obtained at the Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias in Valencia (Spain). Soil was sandy, with pH>8 and electric conductivity below 4.5 mmhos cm-1 in the saturation extract. Yield was weighed during the first nine harvests, fruit quality was determined in the 5th and 9 th harvests and tree size was evaluated annually from 3 to 11 years after planting. Trees on C. volkameriana rootstock were biggest and produced the highest yield, followed by trees on Carrizo citrange. Trees on the C-13 hybrid selection were most efficient in yield m-3 of canopy volume. There were few differences between rootstocks in terms of fruit quality.

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