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Argenta L.C.,Estacao Experimental de Cacador | Shirayama D.,Irineu Bornhausen | Scolaro A.M.T.,Estacao Experimental de Cacador | Ayub R.A.,UEPG
Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura | Year: 2011

This research was carried out to assess the effects of fruit maturity at harvest and its treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on flesh browning (chilling injury) and ripening during cold storage of 'Laetitia' plums. Fruits were harvested at two maturity stages in commercial orchards located in Lages (in 2006 and 2008) and São Joaquim (in 2008): with 20-45% (maturity 1) and 46-80% (maturity 2) of surface with red coloration. Fruit were cold stored in air, at 0.5°C ± 0.5°C and 90-95% RH, within 36 h after harvest, treated four days latter with zero (control) or 0.5 μL.L -1 of 1-MCP, and then kept under refrigeration for up to 73 days. Fruit were assessed at harvest, periodically during cold storage and after three days of shelf life (at 22±4°C) in terms of flesh firmness, titratable acidity (TA), soluble solids content (SSC) and incidence of shrinkage, flesh browning and decay. In Lages, fruit harvested at the maturity stage 1 had flesh firmness values of 2.5 to 2.3 lb higher than fruit harvested at the maturity stage 2, in 2006 and 2008, respectively. In São Joaquim, fruit harvested at the maturity stage 1 had flesh firmness value 1.3 lb higher than fruit harvested at the maturity stage 2. The fruit harvested at an advanced maturity (maturity 2) and the treatment with 1-MCP delayed the expression of flesh browning during cold storage, regardless of orchard location and year. In general, for fruit harvested at maturity stage 2 and treated with 1-MCP, the increase of cold storage period without the occurrence of flesh browning, assessed after three days of shelf life, was ≥20 days, in comparison to fruit harvested at maturity stage 1 and non-treated with 1-MCP. Additionally, 1-MCP delayed the loss of flesh firmness, but it did not substantially improve the preservation of TA and SSC of the fruit during cold storage.


Argenta L.C.,Estacao Experimental de Cacador | De Souza F.,Fraiburgo | Pereira W.S.P.,WP Agro Business Consultoria | Edagi F.K.,Davis
Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality and price of apples in the Brazilian retailer market. Samples of Gala, Fuji and Red Delicious apples were collected monthly between March of 2010 and January of 2011 in 20 supermarkets in Curitiba, São Paulo, Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro and Recife. Four supermarkets in each city were previously selected and defined as sources of apple samples for the 11 months of the study. The Category (scale 1 to 3) of the apples was defined by external fruit quality (color; severity of physiological, mechanical, fungus, insect and hail damage, etc) according to the legal standards of MAPA. Category 1 and 3 represent the highest and lowest fruit quality standards, respectively. The average Category of the apples in the supermarkets increased during the year from 1.6 to 2.0 for ‘Gala’, from 1.8 to 2.4 for ‘Fuji’ and from 1.4 to 1.8 for ‘Red Delicious’. The loss of quality in the period between the packing and the exposure of the fruits in the supermarket was evident in all 11 months and varieties. The decrease of the external quality in the apples at the supermarket was associated with high incidence of mechanical damages and decay that ranged between 13 to 50% and 1 to 20%, respectively, depending of the variety and the month of evaluation. The flesh firmness of the apples decreased between March and July for levels below 12 lb and tended to increase to levels close to 14 and 15 lb between November and January depending of the variety. The standards of price and quality fluctuation along the year indicate that the retail price of the apple is more influenced by the seasonality or the pressure of sales than by the quality of the fruit. The variation of apple prices among regions was similar for the three varieties. Data indicated that average period between packing and supermarket exposure is 17 and 28 days for ‘Gala’ and ‘Fuji’ apples, respectively. © 2015, Sociedade Brasileira de Fruticultura. All rights reserved.


Petri J.L.,Estacao Experimental de Cacador | Hawerroth F.J.,Sara Mesquita | Leite G.B.,Estacao Experimental de Cacador | Couto M.,Estacao Experimental de Cacador
Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura | Year: 2013

The chemical thinning is a viable alternative in apple orchards, because it may be done in a short period of time, reducing the labor in relation to hand thinning. Studies carried out in major apple producing regions show the benefits of using 6-benzyladenine (BA) in chemical thinning. The studies with this substance are essential for improvement of chemical thinning and subsequent use by apple producers in Brazil. In this sense, four experiments were carried out to evaluate the BA application response, alone or in mixture with carbaryl and Promalin®, at different times and concentrations on thinning of 'Fuji Suprema' and 'Lisgala' apples. BA applications at higher concentrations are effective in thinning 'Fuji Suprema' and 'Lisgala' apples. There is an effectiveness reduction when BA is sprayed on fruits larger than 10 mm in diameter. The BA concentration may be reduced by mixture with carbaryl without reduction of chemical thinning effect.


Scolaro A.M.T.,Brazil | Argenta L.C.,Estacao Experimental de Cacador | Do Amarante C.V.T.,CAV UDESC | Petri J.L.,Estacao Experimental de Cacador | Hawerroth F.J.,Estacao Experimental de Fruticultura de Clima Temperado
Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura | Year: 2015

The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of ethylene action inhibition (by sprayable formulation of 1-methylcyclopropene; 1-MCP) and ethylene synthesis inhibition (by aminoethoxyvinylglycine; AVG) on preharvest apple fruit maturation. ‘Royal Gala’ apple trees were sprayedwith 1-MCP (at 50 or 100 mg L-1) seven days before anticipated harvest (DBAH), or with AVG (124 mg L-1) 28 DBAH. Apple trees not sprayed with 1-MCP and AVG were used as control. Fruit were harvested weekly, along five weeks from the 7th day after 1-MCP spraying, and then analyzed in terms of maturity and quality one day after harvest. Fruit maturity and quality attributes when fruit reached the flesh firmness of 71.1 N were estimated by analysis of regression, for each treatment. 1-MCP (50 and 100 mg L-1) and AVG delayed fruit maturation, by reducing the ethylene production rates, starch degradation, loss of flesh firmness and acidity, skin yellowing, increase of soluble solids content and skin red color development. 1-MCP (100 mg L-1) and AVG delayed in 6 and 12 days, respectively, the time required for fruit to reach the flesh firmness of 71.1 N on the tree, in comparison to the control. Fruit treated with 1-MCP or AVG had starch index, ethylene production and acidity values similar or smaller than the control, at the date when all treatments achieved the flesh firmness of 71.1 N. The magnitude of 1-MCP effect on flesh firmness was similar to the effect on ethylene production and skin color, and slightly slower on starch degradation. The effects of AVG on ethylene production, skin color and acidity were more substantial than on loss of flesh firmness. The results show that the treatment of ‘Royal Gala’ apple trees with the sprayable formulation of 1-MCP represents an additional method for management of fruit maturation and harvest. © 2015, Sociedade Brasileira de Fruticultura. All rights reserved.


Petri J.L.,Estacao Experimental de Cacador | Hawerroth F.J.,Embrapa Agroindustria Tropical | Leite G.B.,Estacao Experimental de Cacador | Couto M.,Estacao Experimental de Cacador
Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura | Year: 2011

The effect of Aminoethoxyvinylglicine (AVG), available commercially as Retain®, was evaluated in Fuji Suprema apples during four growing seasons. The application time and the concentration of AVG in a single or multiple sprays were studied to evaluate the effect of AVG on fruit ripening delay, preharvest drop control, fruit production, mean fruit weight, fruit firmness, soluble solids, total iodine-starch, fruit skin color, 'water core' incidence, fruit crack and sun scald incidence. The AVG was applied one, two, four weeks before the harvest point and at harvest time in concentrations ranging from 60 to 120 g ha-1. All treatments delayed fruit ripening, and applied twice and one week before the harvest point concentrated on the same harvest date. The maturation delay was accompanied by the maintenance of firmness and starch degradation. The mean fruit weight increased significantly compared to the control treatment. The development of fruit red color was delayed in proportion to the maturation delay. The AVG applications with different concentrations and application times in one or two times did not differ in relation to fruit drop before harvest in 'Fuji' apples, but all treatments with AVG were significantly lower than the control treatment.


Hawerroth F.J.,Embrapa Agroindustria Tropical | Herter F.G.,Federal University of Pelotas | Petri J.L.,Estacao Experimental de Cacador | Marafon A.C.,Embrapa Tabuleiros Costeiros | Leonetti J.F.,Federal University of Pelotas
Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura | Year: 2013

Temperature is the main climate factor related to induction, maintenance and dormancy release in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.). The inadequate chilling exposure in apples causes budbreak problems, resulting in decrease in yield potential. Thus, the knowledge of physiological principles and environmental factors determining the dormancy phenomenon, especially winter temperature effects, it is necessary for the efficient selection of cultivars in a productive region. In addition, it is indispensable to adapt the orchard management aiming to decrease the problems caused by lack chilling during winter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different thermal conditions during the dormancy period on budbreak of apple cultivars. One-year-old twigs of 'Castel Gala' and 'Royal Gala' cultivars, grafted on M7 rootstock, were submitted to temperatures of 5, 10 and 15°C for different exposure periods (168; 336; 672; 1,008 and 1,344 hours). After treatments execution, the plants were kept in a greenhouse at 25°C. Budbreak was quantified when accumulated 3,444; 6,888; 10,332; 13,776; 17,220 and 20,664 GDH°C after temperature treatments. The cultivars responded differently to temperature effect during the winter period. The temperature of 15°C during winter shows a greater effectiveness on 'Castel Gala' apple budbreak while in the 'Royal Gala' apples the temperatures of 5 and 10°C show better performance. 'Castel Gala' cultivar (low chilling requirement) may supply its physiological necessities, may be capable to budburst, even when subjected to higher temperatures in relation to 'Royal Gala' apples (high chilling requirement).


Gardin J.P.P.,Estacao Experimental de Videira | Schumacher R.L.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Bettoni J.C.,Embrapa Clima Temperado | Petri J.L.,Estacao Experimental de Cacador | De Souza E.L.,Est. Exp. de Videira
Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura | Year: 2012

This study aimed to determine the effects of exogenous application of ABA and ETEFOM on the maturation and quality of Cabernet Sauvignon. This study was performed in a vineyard, located at the Experimental Station of Videira - Epagri - SC, during the 2009/2010 harvest. The doses of 0, 20, 40 g i.a.100L-1 of the abscisic acid (ABA) and 0, 136.8 and 273.6 g i.a. 100L-1 of ETEFOM, forming a 3×3 factorial design. The treatments were applied at the beginning of the color change 'veraison'. The variables were analyzed in grapes anthocyanins, total polyphenol, CIRG index (color index for red grapes), antioxidant activity, total soluble solids (°Brix) and titratable acidity. The results show improvement in the quality of grapes with the use of ABA and ETEFOM combinations, increased CIRG index, polyphenols, anthocyanins and sugars.

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