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Tokyo, Japan

Doff J.,University of Manchester | Archibong P.E.,University of Manchester | Jones G.,EST corporation | Koroleva E.V.,University of Manchester | And 2 more authors.
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2011

Nanoporous films have been formed on 316L stainless steel in 5 mol dm -3 sulphuric acid at 60 °C by square wave pulse polarization between active or transpassive and passive potentials, and characterized using glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and nuclear reaction analysis. The films are shown to be chromium- and molybdenum-rich relative to the substrate, and to consist mainly of sulphates, oxides and hydroxides. The morphology and composition of the films are discussed in relation to the polarization conditions and mechanism of film formation. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Okonkwo I.A.,University of Manchester | Doff J.,University of Manchester | Baron-Wiechec A.,University of Manchester | Jones G.,EST corporation | And 3 more authors.
Thin Solid Films | Year: 2012

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to investigate the oxidation states of molybdenum in thin films formed potentiostatically, over a range of potentials, in either 1 mol dm - 3 H 2SO 4 or 10 mol dm - 3 NaOH at 20°C. Mo 3d spectra suggested that MoO 2 and Mo(OH) 2 were the main components of the films, with smaller amounts of MoO 3 and possibly Mo 2O 5. O 1s spectra indicated the presence of oxygen as oxide and hydroxide species and as bound water. Ion beam analysis revealed the formation of thin films at all potentials, with significant losses of oxidized molybdenum to the electrolyte. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

EST corporation | Date: 2014-03-25

A spelling correction system and method are provided. The system includes at least an input unit, a correct keyword candidate determining unit, and a misspelling correction unit. In the method, the input unit detects an input keyword entered by a user. If the input keyword is a misspelled keyword, the correct keyword candidate determining unit selects one or more correct keyword candidates for the input keyword and then returns the selected correct keyword candidates. The misspelling correction unit obtains a misspelling appearance probability of a pair of the input keyword and each correct keyword candidate, and also obtains a word appearance probability of each correct keyword candidate. Then the misspelling correction unit selects a specific correct keyword from among the correct keyword candidates by using the misspelling appearance probability and the word appearance probability.

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