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Sofeu C.L.,Membre du Reseau International des Institute Pasteur | Sofeu C.L.,University of Yaounde I | Sofeu C.L.,Laboratoire International en Recherche Informatique et Mathematiques Appliquees | Sofeu C.L.,Center Pasteur du Cameroun | And 58 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: The consequences of maternal HIV infection for fetal growth are controversial. Here, we estimated the frequency of small for gestational age and gender (SGAG) among neonates born to HIV-infected or uninfected mothers and assessed the contribution, if any, of maternal HIV to the risk of SGAG. Methods: The data used were obtained from the ANRS-Pediacam cohort in Cameroon. Pairs of newborns, one to a HIV-infected mother and the other to an uninfected mother, were identified during the first week of life, and matched on gender and recruitment site from 2007-2010. SGAG was defined in line with international recommendations as a birth weight Z-score adjusted for gestational age at delivery and gender more than two standard deviations below the mean (-2SD). Considering the matched design, logistic regression modeling was adjusted on site and gender to explore the effect of perinatal HIV exposure on SGAG. Results: Among the 4104 mother-infant pairs originally enrolled, no data on birth weight and/or gestational age were available for 108; also, 259 were twins and were excluded. Of the remaining 3737 mother-infant pairs, the frequency of SGAG was 5.3% (95%CI: 4.6-6.0), and was significantly higher among HIV-infected infants (22.4% vs. 6.3%; p<.001) and lower among HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (3.5% vs. 6.3%; p<.001) than among HIV-exposed uninfected infants. Similarly, SGAG was significantly more frequent among HIV-infected infants (aOR: 4.1; 2.0-8.1) and less frequent among HIVunexposed uninfected infants (aOR: 0.5; 0.4-0.8) than among HIV-exposed uninfected infants. Primiparity (aOR: 1.9; 1.3-2.7) and the presence of any disease during pregnancy (aOR: 1.4; 1.0-2.0) were identified as other contributors to SGAG. Conclusion: Maternal HIV infection was independently associated with SGAG for HIV-exposed uninfected infants. This provides further evidence of the need for adapted monitoring of pregnancy in HIV-infected women, especially if they are symptomatic, to minimize additional risk factors for SGAG. © 2014 Sofeu et al. Source

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