ESR Technology Ltd.

Warrington, United Kingdom

ESR Technology Ltd.

Warrington, United Kingdom
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Lee R.,ESR Technology Ltd | Gower M.,National Physical Laboratory United Kingdom | Lodeiro M.,National Physical Laboratory United Kingdom | Sanderson A.,University of Surrey | And 2 more authors.
Advanced Composites in Construction 2013, ACIC 2013 - Conference Proceedings | Year: 2013

The IMAJINE Project (Innovative Multi-Materials Jointing Integrity Engineering) was a Technology Strategy Board Collaborative R&D Project. The primary aim was to develop structural health monitoring and integrity assessment procedures for joint durability under the application of static and fatigue loading and environmental exposure. Four industrial case studies were considered including wind turbine blades, beam and plate strengthening, composite pipe repairs and train cab components. This paper presents some of the main findings of the project in terms of lessons learnt and guidelines for inspection and monitoring of bonded composites used in a wide range of structures. © 2013, NetComposite Limited.

Sanderson A.R.,University of Surrey | Ogin S.L.,University of Surrey | Crocombe A.D.,University of Surrey | Gower M.R.L.,National Physical Laboratory United Kingdom | Lee R.J.,ESR Technology Ltd
Composites Science and Technology | Year: 2012

A surface-mounted chirped fibre Bragg grating (CFBG) sensor has been used for the first time to monitor delamination growth within a composite material (a transparent, unidirectionally reinforced glass fibre/epoxy resin double-cantilever beam (DCB) specimen). The specimens were tested using a constant displacement rate, with the delamination length being measured using complementary techniques: (i) in situ photography, (ii) surface-mounted strain gauges, and (iii) the surface-mounted CFBG sensors. The unidirectionally reinforced DCB specimens showed characteristics typical of such material which complicate the curvature of the beams, i.e. the development of extensive fibre bridging and pronounced R-curve behaviour. To validate the interpretation of the CFBG reflected spectrum, the experimentally determined strains from the surface-mounted strain gauges have been used, together with in situ photographs of the position of the delamination front. Using the CFBG sensor technique, the delamination length was measured to within about 4. mm over the 60. mm sensor length. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Vechot L.,UK Health and Safety Laboratory | Buston J.E.H.,UK Health and Safety Laboratory | Kay J.,UK Health and Safety Laboratory | Round G.A.,Titanium Dioxide Manufacturers Association | And 3 more authors.
Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series | Year: 2011

Titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) is used in the chemical industry as an intermediate in the production of titanium metal, catalysts and the pigment titanium dioxide. TiCl4 is known to react violently with water to release highly corrosive and toxic hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas. However, industry does not have a common and agreed understanding of the assessment of the extent and severity of the consequences of identified possible major accidents such as an accidental spill of TiCl4. The industry together with the regulatory authorities therefore wishes to make advances on the most appropriate means of estimating the toxic impact from TiCl4 spillage onto wet ground, using validated assumptions on the reactive chemistry and available computer codes. However, very little experimental data are available in the literature on the hydrolysis of TiCl4. Existing spill models are based on theoretical thermodynamic calculations for both the reaction stoichiometry and reaction energy. The objective of the work presented in this paper is to carry out an experimental study of the liquid phase hydrolysis reaction of TiCl4 in order to verify the input parameters used in the existing spill models. Hydrolysis reactions were carried out in excess of TiCl4, since in the case of accidental spills water will most likely be the limited reactant. The experimental investigations showed that the liquid phase hydrolysis reaction of TiCl4 releases HCl gas and produces a solid material. The quantity of solid produced was measured (for a given quantity of added water) and the solid subsequently chemically analysed. An experimental setup also allowed the measurement of the quantity of HCl gas released during the reaction. The liquid phase hydrolysis reaction of TiCl4 was also carried out in both a Dewar calorimeter and in a pseudo-adiabatic calorimeter. These measurements were carried out while varying the water addition rate. The spontaneous, instantaneous and exothermic natures of the reaction were observed and the heat of reaction measured. These analyses were used to test the reaction scheme published in the literature and to propose an experimentally validated reaction stoichiometry and heat of reaction.© Crown Copyright 2011.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: COMPET-01-2014 | Award Amount: 2.73M | Year: 2015

Unrestricted access to Space low shock non-explosive actuators has been identified as an urgent action by the European Commission, the European Space Agency and the European Defence Agency. Project REACT proposal is oriented to permit the unrestricted access of Europe to the technology of high reliable non-explosive actuators based on SMA (Shape Memory Alloy) technology. The REACT (REsettable Hold-Down and Release ACTuator) device is a new Hold Down and Release Actuator (HDRA) for space applications that have been developed as an improved alternative to currently available devices. Specifically, the proposed project is focused on develop low shock resettable Hold Down and Release actuators and qualify them integrated in real space final user space applications that require this release devices, such as big structures deployment, space science payload subsystems deployment, launchers subsystems deployment and small satellites subsystems deployment. The TRL (Technology Readiness Level) expected to be obtained once the project concluded shall be 8. REACT project is aimed to optimize and evolve standard REACT devices designs recently qualified up to TRL6 in order to match the requirements of specific applications demanded by the space market and generate a competitive range of products. The product optimized for space market applications will be able to replace and improve the performance of currently available US components in different areas of application (launchers, science, telecom and Earth Observation applications). REACT project contemplates to develop new SMA material manufacturing techniques and new SMA alloys that fit the specific requirements of the final users also involved in the project. In addition, research and improve the actuator tribology will be a technical objective to be addressed during the project development. Finally it is addressed a complete qualification campaign in order to upgrade to TRL8 the REACT models.

Cruse H.A.,UK Health and Safety Laboratory | Buston J.E.H.,UK Health and Safety Laboratory | Vechot L.N.,UK Health and Safety Laboratory | Tickle G.A.,ESR Technology Ltd. | Rowlands R.,UK Health and Safety Executive
Process Safety and Environmental Protection | Year: 2011

This paper describes part of a programme of work undertaken at the Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL) to investigate the behaviour of selected water-reactive chemicals. Following an accidental release, such substances react exothermically with any water present, generating acidic vapours. The STAWaRS (Source Term Assessment of Water Reactive Substances) software was developed for the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) by ESR Technology to model this complex process. The aims of the study described here were to provide experimental validation of the heats of hydrolysis used within STAWaRS, and to perform sensitivity studies on selected STAWaRS input parameters. The heat of hydrolysis of acetyl chloride was measured and showed good correlation with the value used within STAWaRS. Some of the variables that influence the severity of acetyl chloride spills are examined, with reference to predictions made by the STAWaRS model. The heats of hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride previously measured at HSL are also discussed, and the effect of adopting these experimentally derived values for modelling spills is shown for a hypothetical land use planning case. This study demonstrates the importance of using experimentally validated values for STAWaRS input parameters. Crown Copyright © 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of The Institution of Chemical Engineers. All rights reserved.

Burch S.F.,ESR Technology Ltd
Non-Destructive Testing Conference 2010, NDT 2010 | Year: 2010

The comparatively new technology of computed radiography (CR) for NDT imaging has a number of advantages over traditional film-based radiography including reduced exposure times, and greater dynamic range. In addition, it does not require facilities for the development of radiographic film, which can be difficult to install and maintain, given the often restricted deck facilities space in an offshore environment. However the technology associated with CR is substantially more complex than film, and, in the absence of any internationally recognised standards for in-service radiographic inspection, the quality of the resulting CR images can be variable. To improve the quality control of this form of inspection, the HOIS JIP has developed a recommended practice covering CR for the in-service inspection of pipes for wall loss type flaws (corrosion, erosion). This project involved a series of experimental trials to first develop and then validate the recommendations, and also quantitatively compare the characteristics of different commercially available CR systems. The results of the CR trials undertaken during this project and the main recommendations of the recommended practice are described. © (2010) by the British Institute of Non-Destructive Testing All rights reserved.

Gill S.P.A.,University of Leicester | Lewis M.W.J.,ESR Technology Ltd
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology | Year: 2015

A quantitative method for assessing the influence of steel cleanliness on the fatigue life of rolling bearing raceways is presented. The approach systematically accounts for the effect of the highly variable stress state within raceways. Finite element analysis is used to determine the stress state in the bearings. A fracture mechanics model for the safe stress amplitude as a function of inclusion size is employed from Lewis and Tomkins. The size and number of large inclusions in a large volume of steel are estimated by the Generalised Pareto Distribution. These three elements are combined to determine the failure probability of the raceway in an example rolling bearing. A sensitivity analysis to the various microstructural input parameters is conducted. It is found that the size distribution of the larger inclusions is the most important factor in controlling the fatigue resistance of rolling bearings, and that residual stresses must be considered to produce realistic predictions. © 2015 Institution of Mechanical Engineers.

Coppo P.,SELEX Galileo | Ricciarelli B.,SELEX Galileo | Brandani F.,SELEX Galileo | Delderfield J.,Rutherford Appleton Laboratory | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Modern Optics | Year: 2010

SLSTR is a high accuracy infrared radiometer which will be embarked in the Earth low-orbit Sentinel 3 operational GMES mission. SLSTR is an improved version of the previous AATSR and ATSR-1/2 instruments which have flown respectively on Envisat and ERS-1/2 ESA missions. SLSTR will provide data continuity with respect to these previous missions but with a substantial improvement due to its higher swaths (750 km in dual view and 1400 km in single view) which should permit global coverage of SST and LST measurements (at 1 km of spatial resolution in IR channels) with daily revisit time, useful for climatological and meteorological applications. Two more SWIR channels and a higher spatial resolution in the VIS/SWIR channels (0.5 km) are also implemented for a better clouds/aerosols screening. Two further additional channels for global scale fire monitoring are present at the same time as the other nominal channels. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Lee R.J.,ESR Technology Ltd. | Collett N.J.,ESR Technology Ltd. | Burch S.F.,ESR Technology Ltd.
Insight: Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring | Year: 2012

Visual inspection is currently the most commonly used method for monitoring the degradation of in-situ stud bolts in service, often supplemented with a sample removal of bolts for closer examination. An industry guideline document produced by the Energy Institute for bolted connections includes references to an operator's performance standard, stating that bolts with a 10% loss of major diameter shall be replaced with new bolting. Phased array (PA) and other ultrasonic (UT) systems for bolt inspection are available but to date have not been widely used for corrosion inspection. This study investigates the performance of three different ultrasonic NDT methods for the evaluation of in-service bolt corrosion (PA, manual pulse-echo and a pitch-catch technique). Four separate blind trials were performed by different companies using probes on one end or, in one case, both ends of the bolts (pitch-catch). It was found that the detectability of corrosion generally decreased significantly with the range from the probe and increased with the extent of the diameter loss. A 10% diameter loss could only be detected within about 50 mm of the inspected end of the bolt. However, all trials showed high false-call rates, similar to the overall flaw detection frequency, which raised concerns about the overall value of the inspections performed.

Cruse H.A.,UK Health and Safety Laboratory | Tickle G.A.,ESR Technology Ltd | Carlisle J.E.,ESR Technology Ltd | Macbeth R.,UK Health and Safety Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series | Year: 2011

STAWaRS (Source Term Assessment of Water Reactive Substances) models the spreading and simultaneous vaporisation of liquid pools resulting from spillages of water reactive chemicals. The following substances can currently be modelled using STAWaRS: sulphur trioxide and oleum, anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, hydrofluoric acid, acetyl chloride, chlorosulphonic acid, phosphorus oxychloride, phosphorus trichloride, silicon tetrachloride and titanium tetrachloride. The major hazard associated with these substances arises from their reaction with water (in the form of free molecules and in some cases also chemical hydrates), vaporisation from the surface of any pool that forms, and subsequent fume formation in the atmosphere. After the initial release a violent and exothermic reaction with any water present (such as ground water or atmospheric water vapour) occurs, which liberates acidic vapour. The vapour release rate is largely determined by the availability of water in the vicinity of the spill, and as the pool of spilled liquid spreads, further vapour is released as more ground water is encountered. Once the pool reaches a limiting size, evolution of acidic vapour continues at a reduced rate as a result of wind-driven vaporisation and interaction with atmospheric moisture. The STAWaRS model quantifies the variation of the vapour release rate with time. STAWaRS requires the user to define the nature of the liquid release, the ambient conditions, and the terrain onto which the liquid is spilt. It can then calculate the time evolution of many quantities, including the pool size, pool temperature, pool composition, vaporisation rate, and the total mass of vapour generated. The output from STAWaRS can be used to provide source terms for dispersion modelling. STAWaRS was developed for the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) by ESR Technology and is based on the REACTPOOL model of Griffiths and Kapias (Kapias, 2001a). STAWaRS has been developed principally for use in land-use planning assessments, and provides a sound scientific basis for HSE advice. This paper describes the STAWaRS mathematical model and outlines the software testing and mathematical model verification that has been undertaken. The behaviour predicted by STAWaRS has been examined in detail, and is compared to the output of other available models. Related experimental studies are to be undertaken and the experimental methodology is outlined. These studies will validate certain substance properties used by STAWaRS, such as the stoichiometry and enthalpy of the reaction with water.© Crown Copyright 2011.

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