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Wang J.,Institute of Environmental Science and Research ESR | McLenachan P.A.,Massey University | Lockhart P.J.,Massey University
Briefings in Bioinformatics | Year: 2013

There is much interest in using high-throughput DNA sequencing methodology to monitor microorganisms, complex plant and animal communities. However, there are experimental and analytical issues to consider before applying a sequencing technology, which was originally developed for genome projects, to ecological projects. Many of these issues have been highlighted by recent microbial studies. Understanding how high-throughput sequencing is best implemented is important for the interpretation of recent results and the success of future applications. Addressing complex biological questions with metagenomics requires the interaction of researchers who bring different skill sets to problem solving. Educators can help by nurturing a collaborative interdisciplinary approach to genome science, which is essential for effective problem solving. Educators are in a position to help students, teachers, the public and policy makers interpret the new knowledge that metagenomics brings. To do this, they need to understand, not only the excitement of the science but also the pitfalls and shortcomings of methodology and research designs. We review these issues and some of the research directions that are helping to move the field forward. © The Author 2013.

Shi H.,University of Otago | Hayes M.,University of Otago | Kirana C.,University of Otago | Miller R.,University of Otago | And 3 more authors.
Pathology | Year: 2012

Aims: Mitochondrial Tu translation elongation factor (TUFM) is a nuclear encoded protein that participates in mitochondrial polypeptide translation. TUFM has been reported to be overexpressed in many tumour types including colorectal carcinoma (CRC) by proteomics. The present study aims to examine the prognostic implication of TUFM in CRC. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining was performed in tissue microarrays composed of 123 cases of CRC using a polyclonal anti-TUFM antibody. Immunoreactivity was quantified using Image-Pro plus software, and analysed in association with patients' clinicopathological parameters and survival time. Results: The immunoreactivity of TUFM was negative in 25%, weak in 50% and strong in 25% of CRC cases. TUFM immunoreactivity had no significant association with the clinicopathological parameters examined including TNM stage and grade. However, strong TUFM expression significantly correlated with a higher 5-year recurrence rate ( p=0.024). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with strong TUFM expression had significantly shorter cancerspecific survival than patients with negative TUFM (log-rank test, p=0.038). In multivariate analysis, strong TUFM expression remained a stage-independent unfavourable prognostic indicator ( p=0.024). Conclusions: Increased expression of TUFM is a promising new prognostic indicator for CRC. Selective inhibition of TUFM in tumour cells may present a new avenue for the targeted therapy of this cancer. © 2012 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia.

On S.L.W.,Institute of Environmental Science and Research ESR
Journal of Microbiological Methods | Year: 2013

Campylobacter species are widely regarded as the most frequent bacterial cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Their main transmission routes are via contaminated food and water. For interventions to be effective, methods for the detection, identification and epidemiological subtyping must be sensitive, accurate and rapid. As yet, methods are not perfect, although several significant advances have been made in these areas in recent years. This paper provides a brief review and commentary on the current state of the art in the hope that it will help provide context for others in selecting, improving or developing these vital tools for research and diagnoses. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Newton A.,Institute of Environmental Science and Research ESR
AFTE Journal | Year: 2013

A case submitted to the laboratory resulted in an opinion on the association between a paint flake and a wheelbarrow on the basis of the toolmarks underneath the surface of the paint on the wheelbarrow.

Kieser J.,University of Otago | Taylor M.,Institute of Environmental Science and Research ESR | Carr D.,Cranfield University
Forensic Biomechanics | Year: 2012

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical principles to living organisms, and it is one of the most exciting and fastest growing research areas. In forensic science, it is biomechanics that explains trauma to the body at a crime scene or the fracture of fibers and textiles, and helps interpret blood spatter. Forensic Biomechanics is a comprehensive overview of the role of biomechanics in forensics. Well-illustrated with real-life case studies, and using a multidisciplinary approach, this unique book is an invaluable reference for practicing forensic scientists, lawyers, and researchers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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