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Penagini R.,University of Milan | Sweis R.,University College London | Mauro A.,University of Milan | Domingues G.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility | Year: 2015

Background/Aims: The diagnosis of functional heartburn is important for management, however it stands on fragile pH monitoring variables, ie, acid exposure time varies from day to day and symptoms are often few or absent. Aim of this study was to investigate consistency of the diagnosis of functional heartburn in subsequent days using prolonged wireless pH monitoring and its impact on patients' outcome. Methods: Fifty proton pump inhibitotor refractory patients (11 male, 48 years [range, 38-57 years]) with a diagnosis of functional heartburn according to Rome III in the first 24 hours of wireless pH monitoring were reviewed. pH variables were analysed in the following 24-hour periods to determine if tracings were indicative of diagnosis of non-erosive reflux disease (either acid exposure time > 5% or normal acid exposure time and symptom index = 50%). Outcome was assessed by review of hospital files and/or telephone interview. Results: Fifteen out of 50 patients had a pathological acid exposure time after the first day of monitoring (10 in the second day and 5 in subsequent days), which changed their diagnosis from functional heartburn to non-erosive reflux disease. Fifty-four percent of non-erosive reflux disease vs 11% of functional heartburn patients (P < 0.003) increased the dose of proton pump inhibitors or underwent fundoplication after the pH test. Outcome was positive in 77% of non-erosive reflux disease vs 43% of functional heartburn patients (P < 0.05). Conclusions: One-third of patients classified as functional heartburn at 24-hour pH-monitoring can be re-classified as non-erosive reflux disease after a more prolonged pH recording period. This observation has a positive impact on patients' management. © 2015 The Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility.

Sweis R.,Esophageal Laboratory | Anggiansah A.,Esophageal Laboratory | Wong T.,Guys and St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust | Brady G.,Guys and St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust | And 2 more authors.
Neurogastroenterology and Motility | Year: 2014

Background: In the absence of major dysmotility, esophageal manometry with water swallows rarely explains the causes of esophageal symptoms and disease. This methodology development study assessed esophageal function and symptoms during a test meal in patients with reflux symptoms and asymptomatic controls. The impact of this approach on manometric diagnosis and clinical outcome was reviewed. Methods: 18 patients with reflux symptoms and 10 healthy volunteers underwent high resolution manometry (HRM) with 5 mL water swallows, 200 mL water drink, and standardized solid test meal followed by 10 min postprandial observation. The number of symptoms associated with esophageal dysfunction (SAD) divided by total symptoms (dysfunction symptom index [D-SI]) was calculated. Ambulatory reflux pH-monitoring was performed. Final diagnosis and clinical outcome were documented at 2 years. Key Results: Meal intake took longer in patients than controls (552 vs 339 s) and this was associated with a higher number of ineffective swallows in this group (51% vs 28%; p < 0.001). No swallowing problems occurred with water swallows but 12/18 (66%) patients had SAD during either the meal or postprandial observations with D-SI >50% in 9/12 (75%). Compared with water swallows, manometric classification was altered in 12/18 (67%) and clinical diagnosis was altered in 7/18 (39%) patients due to test meal observations. Conclusions & Inferences: A novel methodology for the detection of symptomatic dysmotility during a test meal and postprandial observation is presented. This technique increased the diagnostic yield of esophageal dysfunction in patients presenting with reflux symptoms. Long-term follow-up indicated that these observations can guide effective clinical management. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Tucker E.,University of Nottingham | Sweis R.,Esophageal Laboratory | Anggiansah A.,Esophageal Laboratory | Wong T.,Esophageal Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Neurogastroenterology and Motility | Year: 2013

Background: Measurement of esophago-gastric junction (EGJ) cross-sectional area (CSA) and distensibility by an Endolumenal Functional Lumen Imaging Probe (EndoFLIP®) may distinguish between gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients and healthy volunteers (HV). We aimed to assess the agreement of EndoFLIP® measurements with clinical and physiologic diagnosis of GERD. Methods: Twenty-one HV and 18 patients with typical GERD symptoms were studied. After gastroscopy, EGJ CSA, and distensibility were measured by EndoFLIP®. Forty-eight hour esophageal pH monitoring was then performed by a wireless system. The ability of EndoFLIP® to discriminate GERD patient and HVs was assessed. Planned secondary analysis then assessed whether EGJ CSA and distensibility were increased in individuals with pathologic acid exposure. Key Results: Healthy volunteers were younger and had lower body mass index (BMI; both p < 0.001). Pathologic acid exposure was present in 3/21 (14%) HVs and 9/18 (50%) patients (p = 0.126). At 30 mL EndoFLIP® bag volume, EGJ CSA was higher (p = 0.058) and EGJ distensibility was lower (p = 0.020) in HVs than patients. Secondary analysis showed that EGJ measurements were similar in participants with and without pathologic acid exposure (CSA 98 mm2 vs 107 mm2; p = 0.789, distensibility; p = 0.704). An inverse association between BMI and CSA (R2 = 0.2758, p = 0.001) and distensibility (R2 = 0.2005, p = 0.005) was present. Conclusions & Inferences: Endolumenal Functional Lumen Imaging Probe is not useful for GERD diagnosis because EGJ CSA and distensibility do not distinguish between HVs and GERD patients defined by clinical presentation or pH measurement. This unexpected result may be due to an important, confounding interaction of obesity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Fox M.R.,University of Zurich | Fox M.R.,University of Nottingham | Pandolfino J.E.,Northwestern University | Sweis R.,Esophageal Laboratory | And 36 more authors.
Diseases of the Esophagus | Year: 2015

High-resolution esophageal manometry (HRM) is a recent development used in the evaluation of esophageal function. Our aim was to assess the inter-observer agreement for diagnosis of esophageal motility disorders using this technology. Practitioners registered on the HRM Working Group website were invited to review and classify (i) 147 individual water swallows and (ii) 40 diagnostic studies comprising 10 swallows using a drop-down menu that followed the Chicago Classification system. Data were presented using a standardized format with pressure contours without a summary of HRM metrics. The sequence of swallows was fixed for each user but randomized between users to avoid sequence bias. Participants were blinded to other entries. (i) Individual swallows were assessed by 18 practitioners (13 institutions). Consensus agreement (≤2/18 dissenters) was present for most cases of normal peristalsis and achalasia but not for cases of peristaltic dysmotility. (ii) Diagnostic studies were assessed by 36 practitioners (28 institutions). Overall inter-observer agreement was 'moderate' (kappa 0.51) being 'substantial' (kappa > 0.7) for achalasia type I/II and no lower than 'fair-moderate' (kappa >0.34) for any diagnosis. Overall agreement was somewhat higher among those that had performed >400 studies (n = 9; kappa 0.55) and 'substantial' among experts involved in development of the Chicago Classification system (n = 4; kappa 0.66). This prospective, randomized, and blinded study reports an acceptable level of inter-observer agreement for HRM diagnoses across the full spectrum of esophageal motility disorders for a large group of clinicians working in a range of medical institutions. Suboptimal agreement for diagnosis of peristaltic motility disorders highlights contribution of objective HRM metrics. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

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