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PubMed | IRSTEA, French National Institute for Agricultural Research and Esitpa, School of Agricultural Engineering
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international | Year: 2016

The present study investigates the effect of metals on the secretion of enzymes from 12 fungal strains maintained in liquid cultures. Hydrolases (acid phosphatase, -glucosidase, -galactosidase, and N-acetyl--glucosaminidase) and ligninolytic oxidoreductases (laccase, Mn, and lignin peroxidases) activities, as well as biomass production, were measured in culture fluids from fungi exposed to Cu or Cd. Our results showed that all fungi secreted most of the selected hydrolases and that about 50% of them produced a partial oxidative system in the absence of metals. Then, exposure of fungi to metals led to the decrease in biomass production. At the enzymatic level, Cu and Cd modified the secretion profiles of soil fungi. The response of hydrolases to metals was contrasted and complex and depended on metal, enzyme, and fungal strain considered. By contrast, the metals always stimulated the activity of ligninolytic oxidoreductases in fungal strains. In some of them, oxidoreductases were specifically produced following metal exposure. Fungal oxidoreductases provide a more generic response than hydrolases, constituting thus a physiological basis for their use as biomarkers of metal exposure in soils.


Bouzanquet Q.,Esitpa, School of Agricultural Engineering | Bouzanquet Q.,Charles Sturt University | Barril C.,Charles Sturt University | Clark A.C.,Charles Sturt University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

This study characterizes a novel glutathione-substituted dihydroxyphenyl compound formed during the oxidation of white wine and model wine solutions, which may contribute to the synergistic role of glutathione and hydroxycinnamic acids in delaying oxidative coloration. The critical components for the formation of the compound were found to be hydroxycinnamic acids and glutathione, while ascorbic acid enabled the product to accumulate to higher concentrations. The presence of the wine components important in other wine oxidation mechanisms, (+)-catechin, ethanol and/or tartaric acid, was not essential for the formation of this new compound. Via LC-MS/MS, HR-MS and 1H NMR (1D and 2D NMR) analyses, the major isomer of the compound formed from glutathione and caffeic acid was found to be 4-[(E)-2 2-(S)-glutathionyl ethenyl]-catechol (GEC). Equivalent products were also confirmed via LC-MS/MS for other hydroxycinnamic acids (i.e., ferulic and coumaric acids). Only trace amounts of GEC were formed with the quinic ester of caffeic acid (i.e., chlorogenic acid), and no equivalent product was found for cinnamic acid. GEC was detected in a variety of white wines supplemented with glutathione and caffeic acid. A radical mechanism for the formation of the styrene-glutathione derivatives is proposed. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


PubMed | INSA Rouen, INFRA Services and Esitpa, School of Agricultural Engineering
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2016

Large-scale outdoor mesocosms were designed and co-contaminated with metals (Cd, Pb, Zn) and organic compounds to better understand the complex functioning of urban roadside swale environments. Infiltration systems were planted with macrophytes (P. arundinaceae, J. effusus and I. pseudacorus) or grassed, and natural or spiked target metals were monitored over two years. In the non-spiked mesocosms, atmospheric metal inputs were slightly higher than outputs, leading to low metal accumulation in topsoils and to very low outflow water contamination (<0.7% of the initial metal stock). In the spiked infiltration systems that simulated point pollution through water inflow, transfer of the initial stock of metals to the deeper soil layers was quite low and outflow water contamination was very low (<0.6% of the initial stock). The main metal output from these systems occurred in the first days of their installation because of the high metal solubility in water and insufficient plant cover at that time. The infiltration systems stabilized after a few weeks, probably because of stronger sorption to soil aggregates, and because of plant root development. Mephytoextraction in plant roots was more efficient in mesocosms planted with P. arundinacea and grass. Metal phytoextraction in plant aerial parts was also better for grass and P. arundinacea, when considering metal standing stocks instead of their concentration in plants. J. effusus was a good metal accumulator, but its low aboveground biomass development was less favorable to metal removal through harvesting.


PubMed | INSA Rouen, French National Center for Scientific Research, INFRA Services and Esitpa, School of Agricultural Engineering
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2015

Biofilters have been implemented in urban areas due to their ability to improve road runoff quality. However, little is known about the role of soil microorganisms and plants on pollutant remediation in planted swales. Therefore, four large-scale outdoor mesocosms were built and co-contaminated with metals and model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (phenanthrene (Phen), pyrene (Pyr) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)), to better understand the complex functioning of swale-like environments. Three macrophyte plant species were tested for enhanced remediation of PAHs: Juncus effusus, Iris pseudacorus, Phalaris arundinacea and a grass mix. Long-term dynamics of PAHs in water outflow and soil was studied. Results showed that only 0.07 to 0.22% of total PAHs were released in water outflow after one year. Two years after contamination, soil sample analyses showed a dissipation of 99.6% for Phen and 99.4% for Pyr whatever the mesocosm considered and ranging from 75.5 to 91% for BaP, depending on plant species. Furthermore, dissipation time-courses may be described by a biphasic process. Experiments showed that the grass mix facilitated BaP long-term biodegradation. Grass appeared also to be the best filter for suspended solids because of its dense rhizosphere, which prevents the transfer of BaP to groundwater.


Porco D.,CNRS Biodiversity Studies Laboratory | Porco D.,University of Guelph | Decaens T.,CNRS Biodiversity Studies Laboratory | Deharveng L.,French Natural History Museum | And 8 more authors.
Biological Invasions | Year: 2013

Biological invasions are increasingly recognized as a potent force altering native ecosystems worldwide. Many of the best documented cases involve the massive invasions of North America by plant and animal taxa native to Europe. In this study, we use DNA barcoding to survey the occurrence and genetic structure of two major groups of soil invertebrates in both their native and introduced ranges: Collembola and earthworms. Populations of ten species of earthworms and five species of Collembola were barcoded from both continents. Most of these species exhibited a similar genetic structure of large and stable populations in North America and Europe, a result supporting a scenario of multiple invasions. This was expected for earthworm species involved in human economic activities, but not foreseen for Collembola species de facto unintentionally introduced. This study also establishes that invasive species surveys employing DNA barcoding gain additional resolution over those based on morphology as they allow evaluation of cryptic lineages exhibiting different invasion histories. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Balaban M.O.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Chombeau M.,Esitpa, School of Agricultural Engineering | Cirban D.,Izmir Institute of Technology | Gumus B.,Akdeniz University
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2010

Determining the size and quality attributes of fish by machine vision is gaining acceptance and increasing use in the seafood industry. Objectivity, speed, and record keeping are advantages in using this method. The objective of this work was to develop the mathematical correlations to predict the weight of whole Alaskan Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) based on its view area from a camera. One hundred and sixty whole Pollock were obtained fresh, within 2 d after catch from a Kodiak, Alaska, processing plant. The fish were first weighed, then placed in a light box equipped with a Nikon D200 digital camera. A reference square of known surface area was placed by the fish. The obtained image was analyzed to calculate the view area of each fish. The following equations were used to fit the view area (X) compared with weight (Y) data: linear, power, and 2nd-order polynomial. The power fit (Y = A·X B) gave the highest R 2 for the fit (0.99). The effect of fins and tail on the accuracy of the weight prediction using view area were evaluated. Removing fins and tails did not improve prediction accuracy. Machine vision can accurately predict the weight of whole Pollock. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists ®.


Balaban M.O.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Chombeau M.,Esitpa, School of Agricultural Engineering | Gumus B.,Akdeniz University | Cirban D.,Izmir Institute of Technology
Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to develop two methods to predict the volume of whole Alaska pollock and to compare the results with the experimentally measured volumes. One hundred fifty-five whole pollock, obtained from a Kodiak processor, were individually immersed in a graduated cylinder equipped with an outflow tube to catch the displaced water as a result of immersion. The weight of the water was recorded. Then the fish were placed in a light box equipped with a digital video camera, and the side view and top view recorded (2 images for each fish). A reference square of known surface area was placed by the fish. A cubic spline method to predict volume by integration of cross-sectional area slices based on the top and side views and an empirical equation using dimensional (length L, width W, depth D) measurements at three locations of the fish image were developed. The R 2 value for the correlation between the L × W × D versus measured volume was 0.987. The best R 2 for the correlation of the predicted volume by the cubic spline method versus the measured volume was 0.99. Image analysis can be used reliably to predict the volume of whole Alaska pollock. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Balaban M.O.,University of Auckland | Chombeau M.,Esitpa, School of Agricultural Engineering | Gumus B.,Akdeniz University | Crban D.,Izmir Institute of Technology
Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology | Year: 2012

Roe is an important product of the Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) industry. About 31% of the value for all pollock products comes from roe, yet roe is 5% of the weight of the fish. Currently, the size (weight), color, and maturity of the roe are subjectively evaluated. The objective of this study was to develop methods to predict the weight of Alaska pollock roe based on its view area from a camera and to differentiate between single and double roes. One hundred and forty-two pollock roes were picked from a processing line in a Kodiak, AK plant. Each roe was weighed, placed in a light box equipped with a digital video camera, images were taken at two different angles from one side, then turned over and presented at two different angles again (four images for each roe). A reference square of known surface area was placed by the roe. The following equations were used to fit the view area (X) versus weight (Y) data: linear, power, and second-order polynomial. Error rates for the classification of roes by weight decreased significantly when weight prediction equations for single and double roes were developed separately. A turn angle method, a box method, and a modified box method were tested to differentiate single and double roes by image analysis. Machine vision can accurately determine the weight of pollock roe. Practical Application Abstract: An image analysis method to accurately determine if pollock roe is a single or a double was developed. Then view area versus weight correlations were found for single and double roes that reduced incorrect weight classification rates to half that of human graders. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Balaban M.O.,University of Auckland | Chombeau M.,Esitpa, School of Agricultural Engineering | Gumus B.,Akdeniz University | Crban D.,Izmir Institute of Technology
Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology | Year: 2012

In the second part of the study of the quality evaluation of pollock roe by image analysis, methods to quantify the color defects (green spots, dark strips, dark color, and uneven coloring due to freezer burn) were developed. Dark roes can be detected by their average L* value. Dark strips can be detected by quantifying the percentage of pixels that have an L* value below an L * threshold. Since there is wide variation among the average colors of the roes, this L * threshold value must be auto-adjusting to the color of the individual roe. Green spots can be detected by their darker color and by ignoring red blood vessels by setting an upper a * threshold. In this study, identifying pixels with L* values less than the L * threshold = 66% of the L * average of the roe, and a* values less than an a * threshold = 20 successfully detected dark strips and green spots. Detection and quantification of uneven color and freezer burn required a smoothing of the roe colors to reduce details. The color primitives method was used, with a setting of a color threshold (CT) = 75. The resulting images were analyzed by setting L * threshold values of 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, and 85% of L * average of individual roes. More surface area of the roe was judged as defective with increasing L * threshold. With proper selection of L * threshold, a * threshold, and CT value, image analysis can accurately quantify the color defects of pollock roe. Practical Application Abstract: Automation of pollock roe sorting by color would streamline the operation, reduce error rates, and help with standardization of quality. Combined with other capabilities of machine vision such as sorting by weight, this technology can be used for multiple purposes simultaneously. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


PubMed | University of Montréal, Esitpa, School of Agricultural Engineering and Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaíso
Type: | Journal: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) | Year: 2017

To better determine phytotoxicity thresholds for metals in the soil, studies should use actual field-contaminated soil samples rather than metal-spiked soil preparations. However, there are surprisingly few such data available for Cu phytotoxicity in field-contaminated soils. Moreover, these studies differ from each other with regards to soil characteristics and experimental setups. This study aimed at more accurately estimating Cu phytotoxicity thresholds using field-collected agricultural soils (Entisols) from areas exposed to contamination from Cu mining. For this purpose, the exposure to Cu was assessed by measuring total soil Cu, soluble Cu, free Cu

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