ESIQIE del IPN

Gustavo A. Madero, Mexico

ESIQIE del IPN

Gustavo A. Madero, Mexico

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Hernandez-Flores G.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Poggi-Varaldo H.M.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Solorza-Feria O.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Ponce Noyola M.T.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2015

The aim of this work was to establish a mathematical model based on Tafel equation to quantitatively relate the maximum volumetric power (P V,max ) as well as the internal resistance (R int ) in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) with the specific surface area of the graphite anodes (As'), and either their conductance C or electrolytic conductivity σ of the material. The anodic chambers of the cells were packed with different anodic materials (graphite rods (GR), triangles of graphite (GT) and graphite flakes (GF), in order of increasing As'). The R int decreased and the P V,max increased for cells equipped with GR, GT and GF anodes. There was a correspondence of either the decrease of R int or the increase of P V,max with the increase of the log of As' of the graphite anodic materials.The fitting of the models was characterized in terms of determination coefficient R 2 , the p value, and the Ranking. The best fitting model for P V,max was PV,max=a0'+a1'×logAs'; with R 2 =0.8872, p=0.005, and Ranking=100%. The inclusion of C as second fitting variable slightly improved the R 2 ; however, the term with C did not have a theoretical origin. For R int the best fitting model was Rint=b0'+b1'×logAs'. The model of P V,max was validated with independent results from literature with satisfactory fitting results (R 2 =0.8704; p=0.0022; Ranking=100%). © 2015 Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC.


Hernandez-Flores G.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Poggi-Varaldo H.M.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Solorza-Feria O.,Ibidem | Ponce-Noyola M.T.,Ibidem | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2015

The aims of this research were: (i) to develop and test a new, low cost, organic membrane (LCM) in an air-cathode, single chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC), and (ii) to compare its characteristics with those of an MFC equipped with a Nafion® 117 membrane (NF). The internal resistances (Rint) were 112 and 110 Ω using LCM and NF, respectively, whereas the maximum volumetric powers (PV,max) were 2146 and 14,246 mW/m3 for LCM and NF, respectively. The relatively low value of Rint of the MFC equipped with LCM was encouraging. Furthermore, the Rint of the NF-equipped MFC was of the same order. PV,max delivered with LCM was 15% of that with NF. However, the cost ratio LCM/NF was very low, ($14/m2)/($1733/m2) ∼ 0.8%. These results point out to a trade-off between sacrificing some power output of the cell (85%) but achieving outstanding savings on membrane costs (99.2%). © 2015 Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Vazquez-Larios A.L.,Environmental Biotechnology and Renewable Energies RandD Group | Solorza-Feria O.,CINVESTAV | Vazquez-Huerta G.,CINVESTAV | Rios-Leal E.,Environmental Biotechnology and Renewable Energies RandD Group | And 2 more authors.
Journal of New Materials for Electrochemical Systems | Year: 2011

The objectives of this work were (i) to determine the effect of electrode spacing and architecture of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) on their internal resistance (Rint) using two methods (polarization curve, PolC, and impedance spectroscopy, IS); and (ii) to evaluate the effect of operation temperature (35 and 23°C) of MFCs on their internal resistance and performance during batch operation. Two types of MFCs were built: MFC-A was a new design with extended electrode surface (larger ξ, specific surface or surface area of electrode to cell volume) and the assemblage or "sandwich" arrangement of the anode-PEM-cathode (AMC arrangement), and a standard single chamber MFC-B with separated electrodes. In a first experiment Rint of MFC-A was consistently lower than that of MFC-B at 23oC, irrespective of the method, indicating the advantage of the design A. Rint determined by the two methods agreed very well. The method based on IS provided more detailed data regarding resistance structure of the cells in only 10% of the time used by the PolC. Rint of MFC-A determined by PolC at 35oC resulted 65% lower than that of MFC-A. The effect of temperature on Rint was distinct, depending upon the type of cell; decrease of temperature was associated to an increase of Rint in cell A and an unexpected decrease in cell B. In a second experiment, the effect of temperature and cell configuration on cell batch performance was examined. Results showed that performance of MFC-A was significantly superior to that of MFC-B. Maximum volumetric power PV and anode density power PAn of the MFC-A were higher than those of the MFC-B (4.5 and 2.2 fold, respectively). The improvement in PV was ascribed to the combined effects of increased ? and decrease of Rint. In spite of opposing trends in cells' Rint, performance of both cells in terms of PV ave improved at ambient temperature; furthermore, MFC-A outcompeted the standard cell B at both temperatures tested. The use of the new cell A would translate into a significant advantage since the power associated to heating the cells at 35°C could be saved by operation at ambient temperature. © J. New Mat. Electrochem. Systems.


Vazquez-Larios A.L.,Energy and Environmental Research Center | Solorza-Feria O.,CINVESTAV | Poggi-Varaldo H.M.,Energy and Environmental Research Center | De Guadalupe Gonzalez-Huerta R.,ESIQIE Del IPN | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2014

The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the cathodic catalyst (either chalcogenide or Pt) on bioelectricity production from actual municipal leachate in a microbial fuel cell equipped with an anode made of granular graphite (MFC-G) and seeded with an inoculum enriched in Mn(IV)-reducing bacteria. Each face (I and II) of the MFC-G was characterized by separate (I and II), in series, and parallel connection. Parallel connection of faces increased the maximum volumetric power up to 1239 and 1799 mW m-3 for RuxMoySez and Pt, respectively. In general parallel connection of electrode faces significantly decreased the Rint (44 and 77 Ω for RuxMoySez and Pt, respectively). In the batch operation where the cells were connected to external resistances (Rext) the average volumetric powers PV-ave in the second cycle of batch operation were 1005 ± 5 and 1317 ± 687 mW m-3 whereas organic matter removal efficiencies of 70 and 85% were registered for the RuxMoySez and Pt, respectively. During the repetitive batch operation of the cells loaded with an actual leachate there was preliminary evidence of an in-cell enrichment process. In principle, the MFC with catalyst RuxMoySez exhibited a performance 24% and 20% lower than that with Pt (on PV-ave and organic matter removal basis, respectively). This would point to a trade-off or compromise solution, since the cost of RuxMoySez catalyst is 70% lower than that of Pt. © 2014 Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC.


Robles-Gonzalez I.V.,Energy and Environmental Research Center | Rios-Leal E.,Energy and Environmental Research Center | Sastre-Conde I.,IRFAP | Fava F.,University of Bologna | And 2 more authors.
Process Biochemistry | Year: 2012

The purpose of our study was 2-fold: (i) to evaluate the effect of dominant electron acceptor [either aerobic, methanogenic, or sulfate-reducing slurry bioreactor (SB)] and biostimulation with sucrose on lindane removal from heavy soil and (ii) to assess the effect of the type of combined environments [partially aerated methanogenic (PAM) and simultaneous methanogenic-sulfate reducing (M-SR)] and addition of silicone oil as solvent on lindane removal from a clayish agricultural soil with high levels of organic matter. In the first experiment, the main effect of electron acceptor was significant (p < 0.0001); lindane removals followed the order SR > A ≫ M SBs. On the other hand, co-substrate sucrose was not significant (p = 0.67). Yet, the interaction was moderately significant (p < 0.007); co-substrate influence was distinct depending on the type of electron acceptor. In our case, co-substrate slightly improved lindane removal in both anoxic SBs (SR and M units), whereas lindane removal in A-SB with sucrose was lower than A-SB without sucrose. Metabolites from lindane transformation in our single electron acceptor SBs were consistent with lindane metabolites reported in the literature for anaerobic and aerobic degradation of the insecticide. In the second experiment, both factors [simultaneous electron acceptor (SEA) combination and solvent addition] were significant (p < 0.0001). Removal of lindane in SEA-SBs, PAM and M-SR without silicone oil was low (∼16%). On the other hand, the order of lindane removals in SBs with oil silicone M-SR SB was significantly superior (65%) to that of PAM SB (39%). Finally, in our work, SBs with SEA where one of the anaerobic metabolites is methanogenic were not as successful as SBs with single electron acceptors for removal of lindane from heavy soil. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Camacho-Perez B.,CINVESTAV | Rios-Leal E.,CINVESTAV | Rinderknecht-Seijas N.,ESIQIE del IPN | Poggi-Varaldo H.M.,CINVESTAV
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2012

The scope of this paper encompasses the following subjects: (i) aerobic and anaerobic degradation pathways of γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH); (ii) important genes and enzymes involved in the metabolic pathways of γ-HCH degradation; (iii) the instrumental methods for identifying and quantifying intermediate metabolites, such as gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and other techniques.It can be concluded that typical anaerobic and aerobic pathways of γ-HCH are well known for a few selected microbial strains, although less is known for anaerobic consortia where the possibility of synergism, antagonism, and mutualism can lead to more particular routes and more effective degradation of γ-HCH. Conversion and removals in the range 39%-100% and 47%-100% have been reported for aerobic and anaerobic cultures, respectively. Most common metabolites reported for aerobic degradation of lindane are γ-pentachlorocyclohexene (γ-PCCH), 2,5-dichlorobenzoquinone (DCBQ), Chlorohydroquinone (CHQ), chlorophenol, and phenol, whereas PCCH, isomers of trichlorobenzene (TCB), chlorobenzene, and benzene are the most typical metabolites found in anaerobic pathways. Enzyme and genetic characterization of the involved molecular mechanisms are in their early infancy; more work is needed to elucidate them in the future.Advances have been made on identification of enzymes of Sphingomonas paucimobilis where the gene LinB codifies for the enzyme haloalkane dehalogenase that acts on 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro 1,4-cyclohexadiene, thus debottlenecking the pathway. Other more common enzymes such as phenol hydroxylase, catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, catechol 2,3-dioxygenase are also involved since they attack intermediate metabolites of lindane such as catechol and less substituted chlorophenols. Chromatography coupled to mass spectrometric detector, especially GC-MS, is the most used technique for resolving for γ-HCH metabolites, although there is an increased participation of HPLC-MS methods. Scintillation methods are very useful to assess final degradation of γ-HCH. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Vazquez-Larios A.L.,Environmental Biotechnology and Renewable Energies R and D Group | Solorza-Feria O.,CINVESTAV | Vazquez-Huerta G.,CINVESTAV | Esparza-Garcia F.,Environmental Biotechnology and Renewable Energies R and D Group | And 3 more authors.
Journal of New Materials for Electrochemical Systems | Year: 2010

A new design of MFC (MFC-A) whose main features were the assemblage or sandwich' arrangement of the anode-PEMcathode and the extended surface area of electrodes (higher electrode surface to cell volume ratio, ξ) exhibited a performance significantly superior to that of a similar cell (MFC-B, standard cell) where the electrodes were separated. The characterization experiments showed that the new design lead to a significant 70% reduction of cell internal resistance (Rint) compared to the standard cell. During the batch operation of the cells loaded with a model extract typical of hydrogenogenic fermentation of organic solid wastes and a sulphate-reducing inoculum, the maximum, open circuit potentials were 0.5 and 0.3 V whereas the average voltages were 0.21 y 0.18 V for MFC-A and MFCB, respectively. Maximum volumetric power PV and anode density power PAn of the MFC-A were superior to those of the MFC-B by factors of 13.2 and 8.4, respectively. The experimental improvement factor was almost double of the expected (algebraic) factor 6.5. The PV of the MFC-A (922 mW/m3) was in the middle to high side of the range of PV reported in the literature whereas PAn was in the low range of published results (38.4 mW/m2). Finally, this work points out to the usefulness of the approach of increasing x and reducing Rint for improving MFC performance. © J. New Mat. Electrochem. Systems.


Munoz-Paez K.M.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Rios-Leal E.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Valdez-Vazquez I.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Rinderknecht-Seijas N.,ESIQIE del IPN | Poggi-Varaldo H.M.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2012

In the first batch solid substrate anaerobic hydrogenogenic fermentation with intermittent venting (SSAHF-IV) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), a cumulative production of 16.6mmol H 2/reactor was obtained. Releases of hydrogen partial pressure first by intermittent venting and afterward by flushing headspace of reactors with inert gas N 2 allowed for further hydrogen production in a second to fourth incubation cycle, with no new inoculum nor substrate nor inhibitor added. After the fourth cycle, no more H 2 could be harvested. Interestingly, accumulated hydrogen in 4 cycles was 100% higher than that produced in the first cycle alone. At the end of incubation, partial pressure of H 2 was near zero whereas high concentrations of organic acids and solvents remained in the spent solids. So, since approximate mass balances indicated that there was still a moderate amount of biodegradable matter in the spent solids we hypothesized that the organic metabolites imposed some kind of inhibition on further fermentation of digestates. Spent solids were washed to eliminate organic metabolites and they were used in a second SSAHF-IV. Two more cycles of H 2 production were obtained, with a cumulative production of ca. 2.4mmol H 2/mini-reactor. As a conclusion, washing of spent solids of a previous SSAHF-IV allowed for an increase of hydrogen production by 15% in a second run of SSAHF-IV, leading to the validation of our hypothesis. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Poggi-Varaldo H.M.,CINVESTAV | Barcenas-Torres J.D.,CINVESTAV | Moreno-Medina C.U.,CINVESTAV | Garcia-Mena J.,CINVESTAV | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2012

The purpose of our research was to evaluate the effect of eliminating supplementation of sucrose to the reactor influent on the performance of a lab scale partially-aerated methanogenic fluidized bed bioreactor (PAM-FBBR). Two operational stages were distinguished: in the first stage the influent contained a mixture of 120/30/1000 mg/L of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol/phenol/COD-sucrose (TCP/Phe/COD-sucrose); in the second stage only the xenobiotic concentrations were the same 120/30 mg/L of TCP/Phe whereas sucrose addition was discontinued. Removal efficiencies of TCP, Phe, and COD were very high and close for both stages; i.e., ηTCP: 99.9 and 99.9%; ηPhe: 99.9 and 99.9%; ηCOD = 96.46 and 97.48% for stage 1 and stage 2, respectively. Traces of 2,4,6 dichlorophenol (0.05 mg/L) and 4-chlorophenol (0.07-0.26 mg/L) were found during the first 15 days of operation of the second stage, probably due to the adaptation to no co-substrate conditions. Net increase of chloride anion Cl- in effluent ranged between 59.5 and 61.5 mg Cl-/L that was very close to the maximum theoretical concentration of 62.8 mg Cl-/L. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed a richness decrease of eubacterial domain posterior to sucrose elimination from the influent whereas archaeal richness remained almost the same. However, the bioreactor performance was not negatively affected by discontinuing the addition of co-substrate sucrose. Our results indicate that the application of PAM-FBBR to the treatment of groundwaters polluted with chlorophenols and characterized by the lack of easily degradable co-substrates, is a promising alternative for on site bioremediation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Vazquez-Larios A.L.,Energy and Environmental Research Center | Solorza-Feria O.,CINVESTAV | Vazquez-Huerta G.,CINVESTAV | Esparza-Garcia F.,Energy and Environmental Research Center | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2011

A new design of a single chamber MFC-A based on extended electrode surface (larger σ, specific surface or surface area of electrode to cell volume) and the assemblage or 'sandwich' arrangement of the anode-proton exchange membrane-cathode (AMC arrangement) and a standard single chamber MFC-B with separated electrodes were tested with several inocula (sulphate-reducing, SR-In; methanogenic, M-In, and aerobic, Ab-In) in order to determine the effects on the internal resistance Rint and other electrical characteristics of the cells. In general, the Rint of the new design cell MFC-A was consistently lower than that of the standard MFC-B, for all inocula used in this work. Resistances followed the order Rint,SR-In < R int,M-In Rint,Ab-In. These results were consistent with reports on reduction of ohmic resistance of cells by decreasing inter-electrode distance. Also, the volumetric power PV output was higher for the MFC-A than for MFC-B; this was congruent with doubling the σ in the MFC-A compared to MFC-B. Yet, power density PAn delivered was higher for MFC-A only when operated with SR-In and Ab-In, but not with M-In. The MFC-A loaded with SR-In showed a substantial improvement in PV (ca. 13-fold, probably due to the combined effects of increased σ and decreased of Rint) and a 6.4-fold jump in PAn compared to MFC-B. The improvement was higher than the expected improvement factors (or algebraic factors; 6.5 improvement expected for PV due to combined effects of increase of σ and lowering the Rint; 3.25 improvement expected for PAn due to lowering the Rint). Our results point out to continuing work using the two-set, sandwich-electrode MFC and sulphate-reducing inoculum as a departing model for further studies on effects of inoculum enrichment and electrode material substitution on cell performance. Also, the MFC-A model seems to hold promise for future studies of bioelectricity generation and pollution abatement processing leachates produced during biohydrogen generation in dark fermentation processes of organic solid wastes. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights.

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