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Kolkata, India

Mazumdar I.,KPC Medical College | Goswami K.,ESIC Hospital and ODC EZ
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry | Year: 2014

It is well known that chronic exposure of lead leads to adverse health effects. Workers for plastic industry are generally exposed to high concentration of lead as fume, dust, and additive that protect PVC. This study was done on them to find out the detrimental effects of chronic lead exposure on hepatic and hematological toxicity. Blood and 24 h urine sample was collected from 47 plastic industry workers and matched against 42 controls for various parameters. The study group shows significant increase in blood (p < 0.0001) and urinary level of lead (p < 0.0001). Hemoglobin levels were significantly decreased (p < 0.0001), and the liver enzymes like ALP, ALT, AST and y-GT were significantly increased (p < 0.0001) in all cases exposed for >10 years. Serum lipid peroxide by quantitative assay of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was also found increased in the study group (p < 0.0001). The observations point towards the acute health risk faced by plastic industry workers, in whom chronic exposure to lead increases the absorption and accumulation, over a period of time, of this highly toxic element in their body. This increases oxidative stress, causes metabolic damage to RBC and cell membranes, and also suggests necrosis of liver cell, hepatocellular injury and presence of space occupying lesions. Considering the data immediate health and hygiene monitoring and proper rehabilitation for the suffering population seem to be of paramount need in plastic industry to minimize occupational hazards. © 2013 Association of Clinical Biochemists of India. Source

Basu A.,ESIC Hospital and ODC EZ | Mazumdar I.,KPC Medical College | Goswami K.,ESIC Hospital and ODC EZ
IIOAB Journal | Year: 2013

Background: Lead (Pb) exposure through contaminated environment has adverse health impacts that can affect almost every organ or system in the human body, including the bone and teeth, causing brittle bones and weakness. Pb stored in bones can re-enter the blood stream during periods of increased bone mineral recycling & can be redeposited in the soft tissues of the body causing musculoskeletal, renal, ocular, immunological, neurological, reproductive, and developmental abnormalities. Recent industrialization of developing countries have contributed to elevated levels of Pb in the urban environment, leading to emission of contaminated fumes that are deposited on vegetables during their production and transport. Prolonged consumption of such food may lead to the chronic accumulation of Pb in the system. Objective: To determine the extent of lead contamination in 10 common vegetables around Kolkata in India, and assess the implication of contamination on food safety. Methods: The present research was conducted to study Pb level concentrations in vegetables along a major highway with dense traffic. Concentration of lead after dry mineralization and organic phase extraction (APDC / MIBK) is determined using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) in a Perkin Elmer AAS 2380 apparatus. Results: Mean ± SD of the concentration of Pb is analyzed in triplicates. Statistically significant difference is p < 0.0001. Vegetable samples obtained from roadside show 3-4 times higher lead concentration, carrot being the most Pb tolerant. Pb accumulation in the crops follows the order: carrot > radish > beet > cabbage > brinjal > cauliflower > spinach > tomato > chilly. It's concentration in various parts of plants shows: root > stems > leaves > other edible parts. Conclusion: samples analyzed were contaminated with abnormal levels of Pb sufficient enough to expose residents of Kolkata, India to adverse health effects of the metal. Source

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