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Chennai, India

Shanmugapriya V.,ESI PGIMSR
BMJ case reports | Year: 2013

A 9 year-old boy presented with a 3-week history of low-grade fever, on and off, and additive arthritis of the lower limb joints with no overt antecedent trauma. Investigations for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), reactive and tuberculous arthritis were normal. He was started on anti-inflammatory drugs as for seronegative oligoarticular JIA. Since arthritis persisted despite treatment, MRI of the left knee joint was planned prior to an aspiration/synovial biopsy. MRI revealed a partial tear of the anterior cruciate ligament with a significant effusion. On careful re-examination, at this point, he was found to have generalised hypermobility with a Beighton score of 9/9. This had been missed initially, leading to a delay in diagnosis and management. He was managed with careful physiotherapy and lifestyle modification. The left knee effusion resolved within a month. This case is being reported in order to highlight the fact that joint hypermobility syndrome can be misdiagnosed as arthritis. Source

Gulhane S.,ESI PGIMSR | Kotwal M.,Government Medical College
Indian Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2015

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) represents a major risk factor for development of malignancies, particularly malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST), optic gliomas, other gliomas, and leukemia. We report an unusual case of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), developed in a patient of NF1. A 40-year-old Indian male, clinically manifesting NF1 since his childhood, presented with huge splenomegaly. Patient also had a large tumor mass arising in a café-au-lait spot on lower back with rapid growth in last 6 months. Excision of this tumor was done, and it turned out to be a diffuse neurofibroma histologically. Peripheral smear was also done in view of splenomegaly, which showed features of chronic myeloid leukemia. CML rarely co-exists with NF1, and there are a very few reports of such cases. It is important to be aware of the possibility that not only the malignant change in benign PNST is more common in these patients, but also other malignancies like CNS tumors and hematolymphoid neoplasm do occur with increased frequency. Source

Chakrabarti S.,ESI PGIMSR | Datta A.S.,I.P.G.M.E. and R. | Hira M.,Calcutta Medical College and Hospital
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2012

Background: Though open surgical biopsy is the procedure of choice for the diagnosis of bone tumors, many disadvantages are associated with this approach. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as a diagnostic tool in cases of bony tumors and tumor-like lesions which may be conducted in centers where facilities for surgical biopsies are inadequate. Methods: The study population consisted of 51 cases presenting with a skeletal mass. After clinical evaluation, radiological correlation was done to assess the nature and extent of each lesion. Fine needle aspiration was performed aseptically and smears were prepared. Patients subsequently underwent open surgical biopsy and tissue samples were obtained for histopathological examination. Standard statistical methods were applied for analysis of data. Results: Adequate material was not obtained even after repeated aspiration in seven cases, six of which were benign. Among the remaining 44 cases, diagnosis of malignancy was correctly provided in 28 (93.3%) out of 30 cases and categorical diagnosis in 20 (66.67%). Interpretation of cytology was more difficult in cases of benign and tumor-like lesions, with a categorical opinion only possible in seven (50%) cases. Statistical analysis showed FNAC with malignant tumors to have high sensitivity (93.3%), specificity (92.9%) and positive predictive value of 96.6%, whereas the negative predictive value was 86.7%. Conclusion: FNAC should be included in the diagnostic workup of a skeletal tumor because of its simplicity and reliability. However, a definitive pathologic diagnosis heavily depends on compatible clinical and radiologic features which can only be accomplished by teamwork. The cytological technique applied in this study could detect many bone tumors and tumor-like conditions and appears particularly suitable as a diagnostic technique for rural regions of India as other developing countries. Source

Upadhyaya G.P.M.,Kempegowda Institute of Medical science | Lingadevaru U.B.,ESI PGIMSR | Lingegowda R.K.,Kempegowda Institute of Medical science
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries | Year: 2011

Introduction: Because of increasing difficulty in treating enterococcal infections, effort is being devoted to understanding factors that are responsible for causing nosocomial infection, with a focus toward targeting these factors with new therapeutics. Evidence has emerged that the esp gene mediates biofilm formation in vitro, which helps the organism colonize and cause infection. Methodology: This study was conducted over a four-year period in a tertiary-care hospital. There were 200 clinical pathogenic strains isolated from nosocomial infections and 100 commensals from stool specimens of healthy individuals. The study compared the production of biofilm and detection of the esp gene among clinical and commensal isolates. Results: Among 200 clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis 65 (32.5%) isolates were positive for biofilm production and 60 (30%) for the esp gene by PCR. Among 100 commensal isolates, 16 (8%) and 14 (7%) were positive for biofilm formation and the esp gene, respectively. Five clinical and two commensal isolates produced biofilm without any amplification of the esp gene. Conclusion: The study shows a significant difference in production of biofilm and presence of the esp gene between clinical and commensal isolates (P < 0.002). Therefore, it can be concluded that biofilm production has an important role in causing nosocomial infection. Although detection of the esp gene correlates with biofilm production, it may not be the only factor determining the formation of biofilm since few isolates produced biofilm without the esp gene. Strains isolated from indwelling medical devices showed high production of biofilm and esp gene. © 2011 Upadhyaya et al. Source

Das S.K.,ESI PGIMSR | Mukherjee S.,Amrita Institute of Medical science
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity | Year: 2010

Background: Alcohol abuse is a systemic disorder. The deleterious health effects of alcohol consumption may result in irreversible organ damage. By contrast, there currently is little evidence for the toxicity of chronic alcohol use on lung tissue. Hence, in this study we investigated long-term effects of ethanol in the lung. Results: Though body weight of rats increased significantly with duration of exposure compared to its initial weight, but there was no significant change in relative weight (g/100 g body weight) of lung due to ethanol exposure. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), nitrite, protein carbonyl, oxidized glutathione (GSS G), redox ratio (GSS G/GSH ) and GST activity elevated; while reduced glutathione (GSH ) level and activities of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Na+K+ATPase reduced significantly with duration of ethanol exposure in the lung homogenate compared to the control group. Total matrix metalloproteinase activity elevated in the lung homogenate with time of ethanol consumption. Histopathologic examination also demonstrated that severity of lung injury enhanced with duration of ethanol exposure. Methods: 16-18 weeks old male albino Wistar strain rats weighing 200-220 g were fed with ethanol (1.6 g/kg body weight/day) up to 36 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, blood samples were collected from reteroorbital plexus to determine blood alcohol concentration and the animals were sacrificed. Various oxidative stress-related biochemical parameters, total matrix metalloproteinase activity and histopathologic examinations of the lung tissues were performed. Conclusions: Results of this study indicate that long-term ethanol administration aggravates systemic and local oxidative stress, which may be associated with lung tissue injury. © 2010 Landes Bioscience. Source

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