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Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP-2010-3.4-1 | Award Amount: 9.01M | Year: 2011

The MAPICC 3D project and concept aims at developing manufacturing system for 3D shaped, multilayered products based on flexible materials. The ultimate goals are: > The development of integrated and automated process chain able to produce from hybrid thermoplastic yarn to 3D complex shaped thermoplastic composite structure in single step thermoplastic consolidation process. > The development of flexible industrial tools, able to produce customized final composites: possibility to reinforce the preform by coating, weaving multilayers, by injection of foam, by introduction of sensors (control quality of preform during the production or monitor the integrity of composite during use) > The development of modelling tool in order to help understanding of the mechanisms involved in the new technologies and to prototype virtually 3D preform, predictive tools to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of final 3D preform and final composites structure and at the last step reverse engineering. The speed of production and the cost of manufacturing the 3D preform will be in accordance with the transport, building and energy thanks to: The use of raw materials at low cost based on thermoplastic polymer, or regenerated fibres, A decrease of production time. The polluting, labour-intensive and expensive steps of cutting, forming and joining, of current composites production could be avoiding. A dynamic quality control during the production to improve the process robustness, A decrease of quantity of wastes in comparison to current 2D preform based composite structures manufacturing. The consortium allows integrating the entire process chain and involves the industrial stakeholders from machine tools, automation and modelling processing of flexible materials, yarn and textiles, composites and end users for transport: industry insures the leadership of the project.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: EeB.NMP.2012-4 | Award Amount: 4.19M | Year: 2012

In residential and commercial buildings, Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems constitute about 35% of the total energy consumption. Although today, heating is the most energy demanding need, there is an increasing demand for cooling which is expected to increase even further in the years to come due to climate changes. To decrease the overall energy demand, it is vital to look for new and innovative technologies for increasing the efficiency of currently applied state-of-the-art HVAC systems. To efficiently tackle the need for less energy demanding HVAC systems for both residential buildings and commercial facilities, the overall focus of EnE-HVAC focus will be on the energy efficiencies heat transfer addressing on both the air side- and the refrigerant side of the systems. It will also, importantly, tackle the energy transportation within the system to ensure maximum efficiency. This will require very high performance characteristics of the refrigeration agents in use. To ensure a significant impact on global warming, there will be a focus on developing the use of coolants with no HFC and CFC content. The specific aim of EnE-HVAC is to facilitate a significant reduction of the total energy consumption in modern HVAC systems by combining a range of new nanotechnological solutions. There will be a clear focus on the optimization of the heat transfer of heat exchangers used in HVAC systems such as condensers and evaporators in HVAC systems, along with the design of systems and the development of new nanomaterial enhanced HFC and CFC free refrigerants. The culmination of the present project will be the demonstration of energy savings of up to 50% on the total energy consumed in the developed HVAC systems compared current to state-of-the-art commercial systems. The EnE-HVAC consortium comprises industry market leaders representing the value chain and leading research institute in surface technology and heating/cooling.

Pyttel T.,Justus Liebig University | Liebertz H.,Volkswagen AG | Cai J.,ESI GmbH
International Journal of Impact Engineering | Year: 2011

A failure criterion for laminated glass in case of impact is presented. The main idea of this criterion is that a critical energy threshold must be reached over a finite region before failure can occur. Afterwards crack initiation and growth is based on a local Rankine (maximum stress) criterion. The criterion was implemented in an explicit finite element solver. Different strategies for modeling laminated glass are also discussed. To calibrate the criterion and evaluate its accuracy, a wide range of experiments with plane and curved specimens of laminated glass were done. For all experiments finite element simulations were performed. The comparison between measured and simulated results shows that the criterion works very well. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

N'Dri N.,ESI Gmbh | Megahed M.,ESI Gmbh | Fabre S.D.,STMicroelectronics
ECS Transactions | Year: 2012

Micro-batteries are gaining a lot of interest in recent times due to their size and efficiency. Several issues related to thermal management, thermal and mechanical stresses as well as life duration do however remain unaddressed. This paper introduces an innovative 3D modelling platform to capture the electrochemistry of the battery and related heat dissipation. The numerical formulation is discussed prior to summarizing the validation work pursued to ensure accurate numerical predictions. The Lithium ion diffusion in solid state electrodes and separator as well as in liquid electrolyte batteries is modelled. The electrochemistry is resolved using the Bulter-Volmer equation. State of charge and property changes proportional to Li+ concentration distribution in the electrodes of the battery are described to provide reliable predictions about battery hysteresis. Comparisons with experiments show good agreement, showing that the 3D modelling offers a reliable platform to confirm designs and concepts in preliminary stages of product development. Preliminary results showing heat dissipation will also be described. ©The Electrochemical Society.

Blanchet D.,ESI GmbH | Blanchet D.,ESI Group | Golota A.,ESI GmbH | Zerbib N.,ESI Group | Mebarek L.,ESI Group
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2014

Recent developments in the prediction of the contribution of wind noise to the interior SPL have opened a realm of new possibilities in terms of i) how the convective and acoustic sources terms can be identified, ii) how the interaction between the source terms and the side glass can be described and finally iii) how the transfer path from the sources to the interior of the vehicle can be modelled. This paper discusses in detail these three aspects of wind noise simulation and recommends appropriate methods to deliver required results at the right time based on i) simulation and experimental data availability, ii) design stage and iii) time available to deliver these results. Several simulation methods are used to represent the physical phenomena involved such as CFD, FEM, BEM, FE/SEA Coupled and SEA. Furthermore, a 1D and 2D wavenumber transformation is used to extract key parameters such as the convective and the acoustic component of the turbulent flow from CFD and/or experimental data whenever available. This paper focuses on process implementation and presents simulation results from coarse to detailed simulation models and compares these with experimental data. Copyright © 2014 SAE International.

Blanchet D.,ESI GmbH | van Hal W.,ESI GmbH | Caillet A.,ESI GmbH
SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems | Year: 2010

In the automotive industry, the use of beading is widely spread. Beads are primarily used to stiffen the floor and dash panels. The aim is to reduce vibration levels and hopefully at the same time reduce radiated noise. Beading has a positive effect close to the first panel mode's natural frequency however it can have a negative effect at all other frequencies. Typically, engineers assume a radiation efficiency of "1" (one) over the whole frequency range for simplicity or lack of available implemented formulation in their simulation tools. This assumption directs the investigation at reducing the vibration levels only. This approach can be misleading because even though radiation efficiency tends to "1" (one) above coincident frequency it is not the case below coincidence. While increasing stiffness reduces vibration levels, it also increases radiation efficiency. This can yield to higher levels of radiated noise. This paper presents a comparison between panels with uniform cross-section and beaded panels in two different configurations: i) Academic frame and plate case and ii) Automotive floor. Vibration levels, radiation efficiency and sound radiated power are presented for all cases. Different types of beadings are compared and conclusions are drawn as to whether these beadings really reduce radiated noise. © 2010 SAE International.

Caillet A.,ESI GmbH | Blanchet D.,ESI GmbH
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2015

The need in the automotive industry to understand the physical behavior of trims used in a vehicle is high. The PEM (poro-elastic method) was developed to permit an explicit representation of the trims in the FEM full vehicle models and to give tools to diagnose the effect of the trims and test design changes (porous material property, geometry, etc.,). During the last decade, the evolution of software and hardware has allowed the creation of models with highly detailed trim description (porous material using Biot parameters, plastic trims, etc.,). These models can provide good correlation up to 400Hz compared to measurements in contrast to classical NSM (Non Structural Mass) methodology which shows limitations. This paper will first introduce the classical method using non-structural masses, local masses and high values of acoustic damping to represent the trim which shows limitations for predicting the response above 200Hz and does not allow a detailed analysis of the effect of trims on the vibro-acoustic behavior of the vehicle. A review of the literature of the evolution of the modeling techniques for full vehicles with PEM representation of the trims is presented from early models with only some porous trims represented as PEM to the latest ones where most of the trim parts ranging from acoustic porous trim (dash insulator, absorbers, etc.,) to the elastic plastic parts (dashboard, pillar trims, etc.,) are included in the model. The influence of modeling accurately the coupling conditions between the trims and the inner cavity or the structure will be discussed. The different results available to diagnose the problems and the influence of the design improvements and visualize them via methods such as intensity contour plots will be introduced. Copyright © 2015 SAE International.

Caillet A.,ESI GmbH | Alimonti L.,ESI U.S. RandD | Golota A.,ESI GmbH
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2016

The need for the industry to simulate and optimize the acoustic trim parts has increased during the last decade. There are many approaches to integrate the effect of an acoustic trim in a finite element model. These approaches can be very simple and empirical like the classical non-structural mass (NSM) combined to a high acoustic damping value in the receiver cavity to much more detailed and complex approach like the Poro-Elastic Materials (PEM) method using the Biot parameters. The objective of this paper is to identify which approach is the most appropriate in given situations. This article will first make a review of the theory behind the different methods (NSM, Impedances, Transfer Matrix Method, PEM). Each of them will be investigated for the different typical trim families used in the automotive industry: absorber, spring/mass, spring/mass/absorber. An academic (flat plate and cavity) and an automotive based test case with thickness distribution variation over the trim part will be studied. For each case, the results will be discussed and the best compromise for modeling time and results quality will be identified. The analysis will focus on full FE models up to 400Hz excited by structure borne and airborne excitations. Copyright © 2016 SAE International.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IAPP | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-IAPP-2008 | Award Amount: 329.53K | Year: 2009

The processes of laser cladding, deposition and surface alloying are increasingly used in modern manufacturing as surface enhancement, rapid manufacturing, tooling and repair processes. In the simplest terms, they are based on blowing a powder stream into a moving, laser-induced melt pool. Modelling of them is difficult as they are characterised by multiple phase changes and mass and heat flow patterns. This project will link the Laser Processing Research Centre at The University of Manchester, which is one of the largest laser groups in the UK with expertise in experimental investigation and analytical modelling of these processes, with ESI GmbH based in Germany, a commercial engineering simulation and software development group with headquarters in Paris, France and with expertise in many areas of numerical engineering and thermodynamic simulation. Its aim is to develop integrated software packages to simulate all stages of the processes, including powder conveyance, powder dispersion in the melt pool, melt pool dynamics and track formation and heat flow and stress formation in the substrate. The project is 4-years in length and involves close cooperation for selection of submodels (modelling methodology), coding, sub-models testing, selection of additional process investigations where necessary etc. Additional personnel to aid dialogue and exchange of ideas will be used at stages of the project. The developed models and software packages will aid the increasing number of users of these processes, especially the aerospace industries who demand tight control of them. The models proposed also represent academic advances in this field and can be further developed for microstructure simulation beyond this project.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: AAT.2008.1.1.2.;AAT.2008.4.1.5. | Award Amount: 5.16M | Year: 2009

Today, advanced composites use either layers of plies impregnated with resin (pre-pregs) to form a laminate, or Liquid Composites Moulding (e.g. RTM) of dry textiles. Prepreg composites give superior mechanical properties due to toughened resins and high fibre content, but suffer from high material costs, limited shapeability, complex, expensive and time consuming manufacturing, and limited materials shelf life. Infusion technologies can overcome these limitations, but are not fully industrialised and rely on costly prototype testing due to the lack of simulation tools. Current infusion simulation technologies are approximate and really only suited to small scale components based on adaptations of Resin Transfer Moulding simulation; they are not accurate for large, thick and complex aerospace composites, where one sided tooling and vacuum membranes cause complex 3D heat/flow processes. The INFUCOMP project will develop the full simulation chain from preform design to manufacture (infusion), process/part optimisation and final part defects/mechanical performance prediction with a focus on the infusion step. The project covers all popular Liquid Resin Infusion (LRI) methods currently used in the Aerospace industry. Although focus is on aerospace applications, the work will be very relevant to other industries. The proposed technologies will allow economical manufacture of high performance, integrated, large scale composite structures; thus, positively contributing to their increased use. Benefits include lower cost, improved performance, greater payloads and fuel/emissions reductions. A team of two aircraft manufacturers, two tier one suppliers, a material manufacturer, university and industry researchers, and commercial software specialists; all with a recognised track record in this field have been selected from eight different CEC countries; one partner is an SME.

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