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Chahua M.,Escuela Nacional de Sanidad | Sordo L.,CIBER ISCIII | Sordo L.,Complutense University of Madrid | Barrio G.,Escuela Nacional de Sanidad | And 8 more authors.
European Addiction Research | Year: 2014

Background/Aims: Non-fatal opioid overdose (NFOO) and major depression (MD) are highly prevalent in heroin users. Many risk factors are known for NFOO, but studies in non-clinical samples on its relationship with MD are lacking. We aimed to examine this relationship in a street-recruited sample, controlling for potential well-known confounders. Methods: A cross-sectional study in 452 heroin users street-recruited by chain referral methods in three Spanish cities. Eligibility criteria were: age ≤30 years, heroin use at least 12 days in the last year and at least once in the last 3 months. Depression was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. A precise definition of NFOO was used. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for the NFOO predictors were obtained by logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of NFOO and MD in the last 12 months was 9.1 and 23.2%, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, NFOO and MD were significantly associated (AOR 2.2; 95% CI 1.01-4.74). Other associated factors were imprisonment (AOR 4.1; 95% CI 1.4-12.1), drug injection (AOR 6.7; 95% CI 2.4-18.4) and regular use of tranquillisers/sleeping pills (AOR 2.9; 95% CI 1.16-7). Conclusions: Drug and mental health treatment facilities should consider the relationship between MD and NFOO when contacting and treating heroin users. Imprisonment, drug injection and use of tranquillisers/sleeping pills are also risk factors for NFOO. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Llacer A.,CIBER ISCIII | Fernandez-Cuenca R.,CIBER ISCIII | Martinez-Navarro F.,Escuela Nacional de Sanidad
Gaceta Sanitaria | Year: 2014

Past economic crises have increased the impact of communicable diseases especially on groups particularly vulnerable to the social and health consequences of the recession. However, it has been shown that the impact of these crises largely depends on the response of governments and the inhabitants of affected countries. We describe the consequences of the current crisis in the causal chain of infectious disease, including the response of the health system, and explore whether there is evidence of its impact in Spain. It is assumed that the possible effect of the crisis on living and working conditions is due to individual and social debt coupled with high unemployment as defining features of the crisis. We highlight the potential negative consequences of healthcare cuts on vulnerable populations, which have been partly excluded with the recent reform of health coverage. We compare mortality and morbidity data between two periods: before and after 2008, integrating, where possible, observed trends and institutional reports. Overall, no effect on infectious disease has been detected so far, although some signs of worsening, which could be compatible with the effects of the crisis, have been observed and need to be monitored and confirmed. We review the limitations of data sources that may not be sufficiently sensitive or up-to-date to detect changes that may require a latency period to become manifest. Instead of cutting resources, surveillance of these diseases should be improved, and an equitable social health response, which targets the population most affected by the crisis, should be guaranteed. © 2013 SESPAS.


Chahua M.,Escuela Nacional de Sanidad | Sordo L.,Charles III University of Madrid | Sordo L.,CIBER ISCIII | Sordo L.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 12 more authors.
European Addiction Research | Year: 2013

Background/Aims: Non-fatal opioid overdose (NFOO) and major depression (MD) are highly prevalent in heroin users. Many risk factors are known for NFOO, but studies in non-clinical samples on its relationship with MD are lacking. We aimed to examine this relationship in a street-recruited sample, controlling for potential well-known confounders. Methods: A cross-sectional study in 452 heroin users street-recruited by chain referral methods in three Spanish cities. Eligibility criteria were: age ≤30 years, heroin use at least 12 days in the last year and at least once in the last 3 months. Depression was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. A precise definition of NFOO was used. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for the NFOO predictors were obtained by logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of NFOO and MD in the last 12 months was 9.1 and 23.2%, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, NFOO and MD were significantly associated (AOR 2.2; 95% CI 1.01-4.74). Other associated factors were imprisonment (AOR 4.1; 95% CI 1.4-12.1), drug injection (AOR 6.7; 95% CI 2.4-18.4) and regular use of tranquillisers/sleeping pills (AOR 2.9; 95% CI 1.16-7). Conclusions: Drug and mental health treatment facilities should consider the relationship between MD and NFOO when contacting and treating heroin users. Imprisonment, drug injection and use of tranquillisers/sleeping pills are also risk factors for NFOO. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Berradre-Saenz B.,Escuela Nacional de Sanidad | Berradre-Saenz B.,Hospital Universitario Of Burgos | Royo-Bordonada M.A.,Escuela Nacional de Sanidad | Bosqued M.J.,Escuela Nacional de Sanidad | And 2 more authors.
Gaceta Sanitaria | Year: 2015

Objective: To establish the degree of knowledge and adherence to the Spanish National Health System recommendations on nutrition in schools in the Autonomous Community of Madrid. Methods: Cross-sectional study of a random sample of 182 secondary schools from Madrid, during 2013-2014 school year. Information on the characteristics of the schools and the knowledge of the recommendations was collected by internet and telephone interviews, as well as a copy of the school menu. The average number of rations per week offered for each food item and the percentage of schools within the recommended range were calculated. The overall adherence was obtained as the mean of food items (0-12) within the range. Results: 65.5% of the schools were unaware of the national recommendations. The supply of rice, pasta, fish, eggs, salad and fruit was lower than recommended, whereas for meat, accompaniment and other desserts was higher. The percentage of schools within the range for each food item varied between 13% and 95%. The mean of overall adherence was 6.3, with no differences depending on whether the menu was prepared or not at schools or there was or not a person in charge of nutrition standards. Conclusions: The degree of adherence to the recommendations was variable, being advised to increase the supply of cereals, eggs, fish, salad and fruit. Programs for dissemination and implementation of the recommendations, leaded by trained professionals, are required to improve the nutritional value of school menu. © 2015 SESPAS.


PubMed | Hospital Universitario Of Burgos and Escuela Nacional de Sanidad
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Gaceta sanitaria | Year: 2015

To establish the degree of knowledge and adherence to the Spanish National Health System recommendations on nutrition in schools in the Autonomous Community of Madrid.Cross-sectional study of a random sample of 182 secondary schools from Madrid, during 2013-2014 school year. Information on the characteristics of the schools and the knowledge of the recommendations was collected by internet and telephone interviews, as well as a copy of the school menu. The average number of rations per week offered for each food item and the percentage of schools within the recommended range were calculated. The overall adherence was obtained as the mean of food items (0-12) within the range.65.5% of the schools were unaware of the national recommendations. The supply of rice, pasta, fish, eggs, salad and fruit was lower than recommended, whereas for meat, accompaniment and other desserts was higher. The percentage of schools within the range for each food item varied between 13% and 95%. The mean of overall adherence was 6.3, with no differences depending on whether the menu was prepared or not at schools or there was or not a person in charge of nutrition standards.The degree of adherence to the recommendations was variable, being advised to increase the supply of cereals, eggs, fish, salad and fruit. Programs for dissemination and implementation of the recommendations, leaded by trained professionals, are required to improve the nutritional value of school menu.


The “Spanish” flu of 1918 caused millions of deaths and is still present in the people's thought. That memory revived in 2005 with the onset of the aviarian influenza and in 2009 with the influenza A pandemic. As a response to these threats, it was encouraged to use antiviral drugs called Tamiflu (Oseltamivir) and Relenza (zanamivir) and governments spent millions of Euros to purchase them. However, the effectiveness of these antiviral drugs was called into question and the scientific and political pressures forced the pharmaceutical companies to share their raw data from the clinical trials of these two drugs. An independent analysis allowed concluding in 2014 that these antiviral drugs had modest effectiveness in releasing the symptoms, had no impact on complications and deaths, caused significant adverse effects and did not change the transmission-contagion relation. This paper analyzed the history of Tamiflu/Relenza and inferred the relevant ethical lessons that may be generalized to all public health crises, such as the erosion of the credit of medicine, of drugs, of clinical trials, of the authorities and of their decision-making process. © 2014, Editorial Ciencias Médicas.


PubMed | Escuela Nacional de Sanidad
Type: Journal Article | Journal: European addiction research | Year: 2013

Non-fatal opioid overdose (NFOO) and major depression (MD) are highly prevalent in heroin users. Many risk factors are known for NFOO, but studies in non-clinical samples on its relationship with MD are lacking. We aimed to examine this relationship in a street-recruited sample, controlling for potential well-known confounders.A cross-sectional study in 452 heroin users street-recruited by chain referral methods in three Spanish cities. Eligibility criteria were: age30 years, heroin use at least 12 days in the last year and at least once in the last 3 months. Depression was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. A precise definition of NFOO was used. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for the NFOO predictors were obtained by logistic regression.The prevalence of NFOO and MD in the last 12 months was 9.1 and 23.2%, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, NFOO and MD were significantly associated (AOR 2.2; 95% CI 1.01-4.74). Other associated factors were imprisonment (AOR 4.1; 95% CI 1.4-12.1), drug injection (AOR 6.7; 95% CI 2.4-18.4) and regular use of tranquillisers/sleeping pills (AOR 2.9; 95% CI 1.16-7).Drug and mental health treatment facilities should consider the relationship between MD and NFOO when contacting and treating heroin users. Imprisonment, drug injection and use of tranquillisers/sleeping pills are also risk factors for NFOO.

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