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Col. Bosques de las Lomas, Mexico

Cerna-Cortes J.F.,Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas IPN | Gomez-Aldapa C.A.,Autonomous University of the State of Hidalgo | Rangel-Vargas E.,Autonomous University of the State of Hidalgo | Ramirez-Cruz E.,Autonomous University of the State of Hidalgo | Castro-Rosas J.,Autonomous University of the State of Hidalgo
Food Control | Year: 2013

Coliform bacteria (CB), fecal coliforms (FC), Escherichia coli, diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEP) and Salmonella frequencies were determined for mung bean (Vigna radiata) sprouts. One hundred sprout samples were collected from markets in Pachuca, Hidalgo state, Mexico. Of these samples, 100% were positive for CB, 98% for FC, 95% for E. coli, 10% for DEP and 5% for Salmonella. Identified DEP included enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). The ETEC and EIEC were each isolated from 2% of samples, and the STEC from 6% of samples. No E. coli O157:H7 were detected in any STEC-positive samples. Positive correlations were observed between FC and E. coli and between E. coli and DEP. A negative correlation occurred between CB and DEP, and between CB and Salmonella. Neither FC nor E. coli correlated with Salmonella presence in the sprout samples. This is the first report of ETEC, EIEC and STEC isolated from sprouts in Mexico and the first report of Salmonella isolation from mung bean in Mexico. Mung bean sprouts are very probably an important factor contributing to the endemicity of ETEC, EIEC and STEC and Salmonella-related gastroenteritis in Mexico. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Velasco-Velazquez M.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Xolalpa W.,Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas IPN | Pestell R.G.,Thomas Jefferson University
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets | Year: 2014

Introduction: Chemokines play a crucial role in breast cancer tumorigenesis and progression. Recently, the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5), which can be secreted either by tumor cells or by mesenchymal stromal cells recruited to the tumor, has been identified as a key node in the bidirectional communication between breast cancer and normal cells. Areas covered: In this review, the authors discuss the role of CCL5/chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) axis in promoting breast cancer onset and progression. Interrogation of large clinical databases has demonstrated increased expression of the CCL5/CCR5 axis in specific subtypes of breast cancer. The activation of the receptor CCR5 in breast cancer cells controls their invasiveness serving as a driver for metastasis. Furthermore, the CCL5/CCR5 axis participates in the recruitment of specific immune cells into tumors, inducing local immunosuppression and favoring tumor progression. Expert opinion: The role of CCR5 in HIV infection led to the development of specific and potent CCR5 antagonists. The data reviewed here includes basic and translational studies that support the use of such CCR5 antagonists in breast cancer patients as adjuvant therapy to block the metastasis. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd. Source


Cerna-Cortes J.F.,Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas IPN | Gomez-Aldapa C.A.,Autonomous University of the State of Hidalgo | Rangel-Vargas E.,Autonomous University of the State of Hidalgo | Torres-Vitela M.R.,University of Guadalajara | And 2 more authors.
Food Microbiology | Year: 2012

The chili pepper is a very important crop in Mexico. Diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEPs) are important foodborne pathogens in different countries including Mexico. No data exists on DEPs presence on fresh jalapeño and serrano pepper and little data have been published on the microbiological quality of these peppers. The frequencies of coliform bacteria (CB), thermotolerant coliforms (TC), E. coli and DEPs were determined for jalapeño and serrano peppers. Of 100 serrano samples, CB, TC, E. coli and DEPs were identified in 100, 90, 58 and 36%, respectively. Of 100 jalapeño samples, CB, TC, E. coli and DEPs were identified in 100, 88, 38 and 14%, respectively. Identified DEPs included enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). STEC were isolated from 36% of serrano samples and 14% of jalapeño samples. ETEC were isolated from 12% of serrano samples and 2% of jalapeño samples. Both STEC and ETEC were identified in 14 serrano samples and 2 jalapeño samples. No E. coli O157:H7 were detected in any STEC-positive samples. Jalapeño and serrano peppers could be an important factor contributing to the endemicity of DEPs-caused gastroenteritis in Mexico. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Perez-Gutierrez R.M.,Av Instituto Polytechnic S N | Damian-Guzman M.,Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas IPN
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin | Year: 2012

In India, Azadirachta indica is typically known as 'neem tree' and its leaves has long been used in the ayurvedic medical tradition as a treatment for diabetes mellitus. In-depth chromatographic investigation on chloroform extract resulted in identification of one new tetranortriterpenoid. Structural elucidation was established on the basis of spectral data as 24,25,26,27-tetranor-apotirucalla-(apoeupha)-1α-senecioyloxy-3α, 7α-dihydroxy-14,20,22-trien-21,23-epoxy named by us as meliacinolin (1). The present study investigated the effect hypoglycaemic, hypolipidemic, oxidative stress, insulin resistance, α-glucosidase and α-amylase of 1 from A. indica. Diabetic rats were treated with 1 for 28 d and a set of biochemical parameters were studied including: glucose level, total cholesterol, triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, liver and muscle glycogen, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. We also looked into liver function by determining glucose-6-phosphatase, glucokinase and hexokinase activities, and the effect on insulin level. While in vitro inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme activities were used as indices of effect on glucose absorption. As a result we found that blood glucose level, serum biochemical parameters, hepatic enzymes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and insulin level were restored in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic mice to normal levels with 1. Meliacinolin inhibited α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities. We conclude that meliacinolin can efficiently inhibit insulin resistance, improvement of renal function, lipid abnormalities, and oxidative stress, indicating that its therapeutic properties may be due to the interaction of meliacinolin with multiple targets involved in diabetes pathogenesis. α-Glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post prandial hyperglycemia prevents the digestion of carbohydrates. © 2012 The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan. Source


Castro-Rosas J.,Autonomous University of the State of Hidalgo | Cerna-Cortes J.F.,Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas IPN | Mendez-Reyes E.,Autonomous University of the State of Hidalgo | Lopez-Hernandez D.,CINVESTAV | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2012

Consumption of ready-to-eat (RTE) salads has increased worldwide. Consequently, the number of outbreaks caused by food-borne pathogens, including diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEPs), associated with the consumption of RTE-salads has increased. DEPs include enterotoxigenic (ETEC), typical and atypical enteropathogenic (tEPEC, aEPEC), enteroinvasive (EIEC), enteroaggregative (EAEC), diffuse adherent (DAEC) and Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) E. coli. In less-developed areas of the world, fresh crops continue to be irrigated with untreated sewage water. The aims of this study were to evaluate the microbiological quality and prevalence of DEPs in RTE-salads of raw vegetables, purchased from restaurants at Pachuca-City, Hidalgo, Mexico, where most locally consumed vegetables are irrigated with untreated sewage water. A total of 130 salads were purchased from restaurants of three categories: A) national chain restaurants and B) local restaurants, both with the H distinctive (a recognition that the Secretary of Tourism grants to restaurants that manage supplies with high levels of hygiene); and C) local small inexpensive restaurants without H distinctive. A total of 6 restaurants were included, 2 per category (A 1-2, B 1-2, C 1-2). Each sample was tested for the presence of faecal coliforms (FC) and E. coli by standard procedures. E. coli strains were further characterized for the presence of DEPs loci by two multiplex polymerase chain reactions. Among the 130 salad samples 99% (129) were contaminated with FC; 85% (110/129) harboured E. coli and 7% (8/110) DEPs. The amount of positive salad samples for FC and E. coli was similar between restaurants and categories. The FC mean (571 FC/g) of all samples was significantly higher (p<0.001) than the E. coli mean (63 E. coli/g). A weak correlation of 7.7% (r 2=0.077, p=0.003) between median FC and E. coli MPN (most probable number) per sample was found. Of the 8 salad samples contaminated with DEPs, 2 were spinach salads from restaurant A 2 and 3 were (Mixed salad) samples from each C restaurant. Three samples harboured non-O157 STEC strains, 2 EIEC, 1 ETEC and 2 samples had non-O157 STEC and EIEC strains, simultaneously. A significant difference (p=0.008) between the prevalence of E. coli vs. DEPs was observed. Independently of the restaurants' overall hygienic status, most RTE-salads had a poor microbiological quality and some harboured DEPs that have been associated with illness in Mexico. Health authorities should focus on implementing DEPs screening in raw vegetables and enforcing the legislation that forbids irrigation with untreated sewage water of both root and leafy vegetables. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

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