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Ejido Plan de Ayala, Mexico

Mendez-Samperio P.,Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas
Peptides | Year: 2010

Antimicrobial peptides are predominantly small cationic polypeptides that are classified together on the basis of these molecules to directly kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms including mycobacteria, and to activate mechanisms of cellular and adaptive immunity. Various families of antimicrobial peptides have been identified, including the cathelicidins. The cathelicidin family is characterised by a conserved N-terminal cathelin domain and a variable C-terminal antimicrobial domain that can be released from the precursor protein after cleavage by proteinases. LL-37 is the C-terminal part of the only human cathelicidin identified to date called human cationic antimicrobial protein (hCAP18), which is mainly expressed by neutrophils and epithelial cells. The cathelicidin hCAP18/LL-37 is a multifunctional molecule that may mediate various host responses, including bactericidal action, chemotaxis, epithelial cell activation, angiogenesis, epithelial wound repair and activation of chemokine secretion. The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is produced from human cells during infection of mycobacteria and exerts a microbicidal effect. The discussion will (1) describe recent work on the antimicrobial and immunomodulatory functions of the cathelicidin hCAP18/LL-37, (2) highlight the effectiveness of the cathelicidin hCAP18/LL-37 as a potent component in antimycobacterial immune responses and (3) summarise current progress in the understanding of the therapeutic application of hCAP18/LL-37 and its derivates antimicrobial peptides in mycobacterial infection. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Mendez-Samperio P.,Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas
International Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Interleukin (IL)-12 is a multifunctional cytokine acting as a key regulator of cell-mediated immune responses through the differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into type 1 helper T cells (Th1) producing interferon-γ. As our knowledge of IL-12 family members is rapidly growing, it will be important to specify their involvement in the regulation of mycobacterial infection. This article is a review of the current knowledge regarding the functions of the IL-12 family cytokines in the immune host defense system against mycobacteria. Specifically, this review aims to describe recent scientific evidence concerning the protective role of some members of the IL-12 family cytokines for the control of mycobacterial infection, as well as to summarize knowledge of the potential use of the IL-12 family members as potent adjuvants in the prevention and treatment of mycobacterial infectious diseases. In addition, recent data supporting the importance of the IL-12 family members in mycobacterial diseases in relation to Th17 function are discussed. This examination will help to improve our understanding of the immune response to mycobacterial infection and also improve vaccine design and immunotherapeutic intervention against tuberculosis. © 2009 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Source

Flores-Morales A.,Technological Institute of Tlaxcala Plateau | Jimenez-Estrada M.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Mora-Escobedo R.,Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2012

The nixtamalization, production and storage of tortillas in refrigeration cause several changes on the starch structure, resulting in an increased crystallinity and therefore a higher content of resistant starch. The IR analysis for resistant starch (RS) showed a band at 1047 cm-1 associated to the retrogradation process; this band was due to the weakening of the intermolecular H-bonds. These associated together to form ordered regions. The Raman analysis shows a characteristic band at 856 cm-1 corresponding to C-C skeletal modes of glucose of α-1,4 glycosidic linkage starches, and a band at 480 cm-1 attributed to skeletal vibrations of the pyranose ring in the glucose unit of starches. These changes may be related to the polymerization degree of the starch molecules, as well as to the retrogradation of amylose and amylopectin. The spectrum of 13C CP-MAS/NMR for RS3 supports the results obtained by IR and Raman. Lipidic and proteic groups were observed which may be in the form of complexes with amylose. One can proclaim that the existence of the salt form is induced and stabilized by the interactions dominating the V amylose structure in the solid state. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All Rights Reserved. Source

Mendez-Samperio P.,Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas
Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology | Year: 2013

Trypanosomes cause a variety of tropical diseases that affect the livelihood of individuals worldwide. The currently used pharmaceutical treatments rely on chemotherapy. However, many of these drugs are very expensive, and highly toxic. In addition, parasite resistance to several of the therapeutic drugs used is increasing. Therefore, there is a growing need for new control measures for many of these diseases. One new approach is the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) to disease control, since these peptides can be used as potential anti-parasite effector molecules. This review summarizes and discusses the parasiticidal properties of AMPs for treating trypanosome infections, highlighting their mechanisms of action and current status in development. Source

Hirsch A.M.,University of California at Los Angeles | Valdes M.,Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2010

Micromonospora species have long been recognized as important sources of antibiotics and also for their unusual spores. However, their involvement in plant-microbe associations is poorly understood although several studies demonstrate that Micromonospora species function in biocontrol, plant growth promotion, root ecology, and in the breakdown of plant cell wall material. Our knowledge of this generally understudied group of actinomycetes has been greatly advanced by the increasing number of reports of their associations with plants, by the deployment of DNA cloning and molecular systematics techniques, and by the recent application of whole genome sequencing. Efforts to annotate the genomes of several Micromonospora species are underway. This information will greatly augment our knowledge of these versatile microorganisms. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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