Escuela Nacional de Antropologia e Historia

Dolores Hidalgo Cuna de la Independencia Nacional, Mexico

Escuela Nacional de Antropologia e Historia

Dolores Hidalgo Cuna de la Independencia Nacional, Mexico
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Olga Hernandez Espinoza P.,Centro INAH Sonora | Marquez Morfin L.,Escuela Nacional de Antropologia e Historia
American Journal of Human Biology | Year: 2015

Objectives: We present a review of what is known about the population dynamics from Classic and Post-Classic Maya settlements in coastal areas of the Yucatan Peninsula such as Jaina, Chac Mool, El Meco and Xcambó and two other urban centers, Palenque and Copan. Methods: This contribution discusses the available data on mortality, survival, life expectancy, fertility and migration, obtained by paleodemographic methodology. Data for Xcambó and El Meco were obtained from Tiesler Bloss et al., (2005) and Ortega (2007); information from other sites was obtained from previous work conducted by the authors. Results: This review proposes that the demographic dynamics of the Classical period are typical of densely populated and developing areas with overall average birth rates of six children per woman and a life expectancy at birth of between 20 and 42.2 years, which is equivalent to birth rates above 40 per thousand inhabitants. Post-Classic settlements show evidence of great population mobility with unfavorable changes in living conditions that lead us to think of fertility decrease and low life expectancies at birth. Conclusions: There are indications of a demographic change between the Late-Terminal Classic and Post-Classic periods. Life expectancies are lower than 30 years, a high infant mortality and low adult survival after 50 years is shown. The Post-Classic period is characterized by population rearrangements and mobility. Results obtained for both Chac Mool series showed deterioration in health and reduced life expectancy and fertility levels from one period to another. El Meco and Xcambó series showed differences with Chac Mool's due to higher growth rates. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Argote-Espino D.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Tejero-Andrade A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Cifuentes-Nava G.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Iriarte L.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Archaeological Science | Year: 2013

The implementation of a 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT-3D) survey was carried out in El Pahñú archaeological site, Hidalgo State, Central Mexico. A combination of a new ERT arrays allowed studying the subsoil beneath the Main Pyramid built near the edge of a plateau, along with another important structure (the Tecpan), which was a smaller structure that lodged the governmental council in pre-Hispanic times. The recorded information was acquired through the combination of several electrodic designs: L-Corner (LC), Equatorial (Eq), and Minimum Coupling (MC). For the Main Pyramid, the electrodes were set up around the perimeter of the structure, since they were not permitted to be inserted over the edifice, thus preventing damages to the architectonic elements. The second structure allowed inserting electrodes on selected spots within the architectonic space. The combination of the different arrays made possible the acquisition of 1204 apparent resistivities beneath the Main Pyramid and 2460 resistivity data beneath the Tecpan. The apparent resistivity data were inverted to obtain a three dimensional display of the subsoil electrical resistivity beneath the archaeological structure. The interpreted resistivity model under the Main Pyramid displayed a highly resistive structure towards its northern face that could be associated with infill. Such material was employed by the ancient constructors to level the terrain close to the edge of the cliff. Another interesting anomaly was found towards the central portion of the structure that could be associated to a foundation offer. The interpretation of data beneath the Tecpan identified the structural foundations and other interesting anomalies related to the different occupational times. The investigation supported the archaeological investigation of the site, suggesting areas of potential geological risk and of archaeological interest. For example, the Main Pyramid presents serious stability problems, indicating that the infill has weakened, producing cracks threatening long-term pyramid integrity. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Malina R.M.,University of Texas at Austin | Malina R.M.,Tarleton State University | Pena Reyes M.E.,Escuela Nacional de Antropologia e Historia | Little B.B.,Tarleton State University
American Journal of Physical Anthropology | Year: 2010

Secular change in adult height of residents in a rural indigenous community in the Valley of Oaxaca was evaluated. Subjects were measured in 1971 (49 males, 26 females 19-70 years), 1978 (128 males, 124 females 19-82 years) and 2000 (155 males, 255 females 19-89 years). Heights were adjusted for estimated loss with age using two protocols; height at 21 years of age was also estimated. The effects of age and secular factors on measured and adjusted heights were evaluated through segmented linear regressions for three birth periods, <1930, 1930 through 1959 and ≥1960 which approximate significant periods in Mexican history. Secular increase in height occurred but estimated rates varied over time and between sexes. Males born before 1930 showed a secular increase in height but females did not. Adults of both sexes born 1930-1959 showed secular gains and estimated rates did not differ. The secular gain in height continued among those born 1960 and later and estimated rates were similar in both sexes. Estimated height at 21 years of age increased in males (not significant) but not in females born before 1930, showed little or no change in those born between 1930-1959, and increased (not significant) in those born 1960 and later. Combining observations on adults with those for youth in the community indicated several phases of secular change in height that varied with years of birth. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Malina R.M.,University of Texas at Austin | Malina R.M.,Tarleton State University | Pena Reyes M.E.,Escuela Nacional de Antropologia e Historia | Chavez G.B.,Comision Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indigenas | Little B.B.,Tarleton State University
Annals of Human Biology | Year: 2011

Background: Information on secular change in indigenous children in Oaxaca, southern Mexico, is limited. Aim: To evaluate secular change in heights and weights of indigenous school children 6-14 years in four regions of the state of Oaxaca between the 1970s and 2007. Subjects and methods: Heights and weights of 2897 (1419 boys, 1478 girls) and 4305 (2368 boys, 1937 girls) school children 6-14 years of age were measured in the 1970s (1971-1978) and 2007, respectively. The sample was from 18 communities in the 1970s and from 58 communities in 2007 in four regions of Oaxaca. Sex-specific MANCOVA, with age of the child and altitude of each community as covariates, was used to compare size attained in the 1970s and 2007 in two age groups: 6-9 years and 10-14 years. Results: Indigenous Oaxaca school children are taller and heavier in 2007 than the 1970s. Secular gains are larger in youth of 10-14 years than in children of 6-9 years, while sex differences are small. Conclusion: Improved growth status between the 1970s and 2007 presumably reflects better health and nutritional conditions in indigenous communities of Oaxaca. Mean heights in 2007, however, only approximate 5th percentiles of the US reference. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

Malina R.M.,University of Texas at Austin | Malina R.M.,Tarleton State University | Reyes M.E.P.,Escuela Nacional de Antropologia e Historia | Tan S.K.,Fifth Ray Integrated Activities Pte Ltd | Little B.B.,Tarleton State University
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2011

Background/Objective:The objective of this study is to compare the growth and physical fitness of normal, stunted and overweight/obese (owt/ob) Oaxaca children 6-13 years.Subjects/Methods:This study was a cross-sectional, included 688 school children (grades 1-3, 4-6), aged 6-13 years, from an indigenous rural community (n = 361) and colonia popular (n = 327) in Oaxaca, southern Mexico. Measurements: Anthropometryweight, height, sitting height, limb circumferences, skinfolds. Derivedbody mass index, sitting height/height ratio, leg and step lengths, limb muscle areas, sum of skinfolds. Physical fitnesssit and reach, sit-ups, distance run, grip strength, standing long jump, 35 yard dash. Physical activitysteps to and from school, household chores, sports participation. Analysis: Normalnot stunted, not owt/ob; stuntednot owt/ob; and owt/obnot stunted were compared with multivariate analysis of covariance controlling for age. Two children were stunted and owt/ob, and were excluded.Results:Age- adjusted means for body size, muscularity, adiposity and grip strength showed a gradient, owt/obnormalstunted in both sexes and grade levels (P = 0.001). Relative position of stunted and owt/ob children was reversed for strength per unit mass. Stunted and normal children ran a greater distance than owt/ob children (P0.05). Normal, stunted and owt/ob children did not differ consistently in other fitness items and indicators of activity and inactivity.Conclusion:Size, muscularity, fatness and strength differed significantly, owt/obnormalstunted, but owt/ob children had less strength per unit mass and poorer endurance. Normal and stunted children did not differ consistently in fitness. Physical activity and television time did not differ among the three groups. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Argote-Espino D.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Sole J.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Lopez-Garcia P.,Escuela Nacional de Antropologia e Historia | Sterpone O.,Centro INAH Pachuca
Geoarchaeology | Year: 2012

Otumba and Sierra de Pachuca obsidian deposits in Central Mexico have been important sources of raw material since pre-Hispanic times. Numerous archaeological investigations have suggested that the economical and political expansion of major Mesoamerican societies were linked to the control of obsidian sources and distribution of quarried material. Sierra de Pachuca contains several obsidian flows and numerous quarries throughout the region that were preferentially exploited by different cultures. The Otumba Volcanic Complex has four important obsidian domes, but three of them have not been studied in detail. A geochemical characterization of subsources from the Sierra de Pachuca and Otumba Volcanic Complex is an important step toward future sourcing of obsidian artifacts that would help provide insight into spheres of influence and trade by past cultures in Central Mexico. Having this purpose in mind, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to analyze obsidian samples collected from five separated locations at Sierra de Pachuca and four at Otumba, followed by statistical analysis (density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise, DBSCAN). We were able to distinguish three chemically distinctive subsources in Sierra de Pachuca and three in Otumba. This study illustrates the importance of accurate characterization of obsidian raw material when attempting to define subsource usage. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

PubMed | National Autonomous University of Mexico, Posgrado en Antropologia Fisica, Escuela Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Washburn University and Equipo Peruano de Antropologia Forense
Type: | Journal: American journal of physical anthropology | Year: 2017

The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of the Klales et al. (2012) equation for sex estimation in contemporary Mexican population.Our investigation was carried out on a sample of 203 left innominates of identified adult skeletons from the UNAM-Collection and the Santa Mara Xigui Cemetery, in Central Mexico. The Klales original equation produces a sex bias in sex estimation against males (86-92% accuracy versus 100% accuracy in females). Based on these results, the Klales et al. (2012) method was recalibrated for a new cutt-of-point for sex estimation in contemporary Mexican populations.The results show cross-validated classification accuracy rates as high as 100% after recalibrating the original logistic regression equation. Recalibration improved classification accuracy and eliminated sex bias. This new formula will improve sex estimation for Mexican contemporary populations.

Lindberg N.M.,Kaiser Permanente | Stevens V.J.,Kaiser Permanente | Vega-Lopez S.,Arizona State University | Kauffman T.L.,Kaiser Permanente | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health | Year: 2012

This study assessed the feasibility of a culturally-appropriate weight-loss intervention targeting obese Spanish-speaking Mexican women. This 12-month weightloss program was based on behavioral interventions previously used successfully with English-speaking participants. Cultural adaptations included: female interventionists, minimal written materials, emphasis on group activities, focus on Mexican traditions and beliefs, and skill-building approach to food measurement. All sessions were conducted in Spanish. The study had few exclusionary criteria, which allowed participation of women with a wide range of literacy levels. Recruitment exceeded expectations, with 47 participants enrolling in the program. Not counting participants who became pregnant during the study, attendance at 6 and 12 months was 62 and 50 % respectively. Mean weight loss at 6 and 12 months was 5.3 and 7.2 kg, respectively, with a mean reduction in BMI of 4.0 and 5.5 kg/m2 from baseline to 6 and 12 months, respectively. This pilot study shows that it is feasible to develop and implement culturally-appropriate behavioral lifestyle interventions for obesity treatment in Mexican-American women. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

Moyano R.,Escuela Nacional de Antropologia e Historia
Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union | Year: 2011

Sky observation in sub-tropical Andean areas, part of ancient Collasuyu, during the Inca empire (ca. 1470 A.D.) was characterized by the combined use of geographical, social, psychological and natural elements of the entorno (environment or landscape). From a phenomenological perspective, it would be understood as: the place (point of observation), the path (line or relation), the horizon (calendrical marker) and the zenith/anti-zenith (vertical projection) as an expression of 'dwelling or living in the world'. I present results obtained from a spatio-temporal analysis of mountain worship which took place at the Atacama Indian community of Socaire, northern Chile (23° 35' 28''S, 67° 52' 36''W, 3274m AMSL). These indicate the existence of an animistic relationship between astronomical observations, the worship of mountains, and agricultural practices. The psychological phenomena of pareidolia, apophenia and hierophany also contribute to explain the mimetolith of the 'Hand of God' (formed by the Tumisa, Lausa, Chiliques, Ipira and Miñiques mountains) and the social categories of space and time in Socaire: 'above, here, and down'; 'right and left'; 'female and male'; 'noon and midnight'; 'north and south'; and 'visible and invisible' (as complementary opposites or yanantin). © International Astronomical Union 2011.

The interventions of archaeological recovery in Mexico City have allowed researchers to rebuild the historical outlook of the first Hispanic metropolis in America, even ages before the European presence. This article shows the discoveries made during the excavations of civil work in one of the jardinières located in the west side of the Metropolitan Cathedral, which came up interesting because of the finding of architectonic remains, perhaps related to the urban complex surrounding the pristine catholic temple of the colonial city, and also because of the local artificial stratigraphy, along with the rubbish deposits of the 16th century which were a part of the underground filling, and mainly consisted of prehispanic pottery and colonial ceramic of both national and imported manufacture, with the addition of diverse animal bone remains that were part of the residents daily consumption, and in which varied anthropic alterations formed during food processing were detected.

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