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Steelman K.L.,University of Central Arkansas | Steelman K.L.,Shumla Archaeological Research and Education Center | de Lombera-Hermida A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | de Lombera-Hermida A.,Institute Catala Of Paleoecologia Humana I Evolucio Social | And 8 more authors.
Radiocarbon | Year: 2017

At Cova Eirós, we discovered 13 panels with paintings and engravings that stylistically point to the final moments of the Upper Paleolithic. Scanning electron microscopy wiThenergy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy were used to identify charcoal as black pigment. Although contamination from medieval fires inside the cave complicates the dating of these pictographs, analyses of unpainted rock backgrounds allowed calculation corrections for contaminated samples. We used plasma oxidation and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to directly radiocarbon (14C) date two charcoal paintings—confirming that the images are more than 9000 yr old. As these paintings superimpose engravings, these14C dates also provide a minimum age for an engraving at Cova Eirós that is stylistically Final Magdalenian/Epipaleolithic. This is the first known evidence of Paleolithic cave art in Galicia of NW Iberia. © 2017 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.

Noya N.C.,Rock Art Conservation S.L. | Garcia A.L.,Escola Superior de Conservacion e Restauracion de Bens Culturais de Galicia | Ramirez F.C.,Escola Superior de Conservacion e Restauracion de Bens Culturais de Galicia
Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage | Year: 2015

Photogrammetry is an indirect technique that allows one to obtain different recording products - orthophotographs, planimetries, 3D models, etc. - that are essential for the study of prehistoric rock art. We believe nonetheless that there is no single technique capable of effectively registering an entire rock art site, so it is highly recommended to use a combination of several systems - that is to say, the development of a specific recording methodology - in order to obtain a documentation which is as thorough as possible. In this regard, different possibilities of combination of photogrammetry with other photographic techniques have been analysed, with the aim of obtaining an accurate recording of the art and its support, seeking also to incorporate into this recording other essential data for the study of its state of preservation. The use of photogrammetric techniques will be described, along with the tests carried out with photographic techniques such as polarised light photography or those that register images at both ends of the visible spectrum, both in the ultraviolet (UV) and in the infrared region (IR). These techniques enable the revelation of invisible details to clarify issues concerning technology and to explore scarcely noticeable forms of alteration. In some cases, these experiences have been complemented by the use of laser scanning in order to compare the effectiveness of both techniques. With all the experience acquired, it is possible to propose a rather precise recording methodology that requires no specialised technical training and no complex equipment. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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