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Pedron F.A.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Fink J.R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Rodrigues M.F.,Federal University of Santa Maria | de Azevedo A.C.,Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz ESALQ
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2011

Leptosols and Regosols are soils with a series of restrictions for use, mainly related to the effective depth, which have been poorly studied in Brazil. These soils, when derived from sedimentary rocks should be treated with particular care to avoid environmental damage such as aquifer contamination. The purpose of this study was to verify the behavior of hydraulic conductivity and water retention capacity in profiles of Leptosols and Regosols derived from sandstone of the Caturrita formation in Rio Grande do Sul state. The morphology, particle size distribution, porosity, soil density (Ds), saturated hydraulic conductivity (K s), basic water infiltration in the field (BI) and water retention were determined in soil and saprolite samples of six soil profiles. High Ds, low macroporosity and high microporosity were observed in the profiles, resulting in a low K s and BI, even under conditions of sandy texture and a highly fractured saprolite layer. The variation coefficients of data of K s and BI were high among the studied profiles and between replications of a same profile. Water retention of the studied soils was higher in Cr layers than in the A horizons and the volume of plant-available water greater and variable among A horizons and Cr layers.


Modro A.F.H.,Federal University of Rondônia | Marchini L.C.,Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz ESALQ | Moreti A.C.C.C.,Institute Zootecnia Of Nova Odessa
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2011

This study aimed to identify the botanic origin of pollen loads collected by Africanized honeybees. In Piracicaba (SP), during four seasons of the year, five honeybee colonies were installed with a frontal pollen collector in each one. The palinological preparation was done by the use of acetolysis and identified and counted approximately 900 pollen grains per sample. From the pollinic composition, the richness, diversity indexes and equitability were calculated. Throughout the year, 81 pollinic types were found, belonging to 32 botanic families, being Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Malvaceae the ones with the biggest frequency of pollinic types (5 pollinic types) and, Myrtaceae, the family with two pollinic types (Eucalyptus sp. and Myrcia sp.), among the nine most common types in the samples (> 10%). The biggest richness of pollinic types was during summer, and the biggest diversity and equitability was during spring. Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Malvaceae and Myrtaceae are the most important botanic families as polliniferous sources in Piracicaba - SP.


Rabelo F.H.S.,Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz ESALQ | de Rezende A.V.,University of José do Rosário Vellano | Rabelo C.H.S.,São Paulo State University | Amorim F.A.,Institute Ciencias Agrarias UNIFENAS
Revista Ciencia Agronomica | Year: 2013

The aim was to evaluate levels and forms of application of potassium on the agronomic and alimentary characteristics of corn used for silage. The experiment was carried out at UNIFENAS during the agricultural year of 2008/2009. Fertilization at planting and sowing was performed manually using 120kg ha-1 P2O5 and 30kg ha-1 N, the potassium being applied according to the treatments. The experimental design used was of randomized blocks in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement with four replications, using four amounts (0; 60; 90 and 120 kg ha-1) and two formsof application of K (100% at planting and 50% at sowing+50% coverage). The interaction between the factors of amount and forms of application of the potassium was not significant (p>0.05) for the variables studied: the main effect of each factor was then investigated. There was no effect (p>0.05) for K levels on the percentage of drymatter (DM) and bedded plants, DM and grain productivity and grain participation in the mass. The highest grain yield was obtained when using K at planting (p<0.05). High doses of potassium did not produce changes in DM, percentage of bedded plants, DM production, grain yield or grain percentage of the plant. The different levels and forms of application of potassium do not alter the alimentary characteristics of corn silage.


Salgado J.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Bombarde T.A.D.,University of Sao Paulo | Mansi D.N.,University of Sao Paulo | Piedade S.M.S.,Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz ESALQ | Meletti L.M.M.,Instituto Agronomico Of Campinas Iac
Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos | Year: 2010

Diabetes mellitus, an endocrine disorder, is the major cause of morbidity in developing countries, and it is considered the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. The conventional therapy for diabetes is insulin treatment. The peel of the Passion fruit is rich in fiber and prevents the absorption of carbohydrates, and thus can control and reduce the blood sugar rate. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of the passion fruit peel flour on the glicemia of diabetic rats, as well as to study the probable action mechanisms. Wistar rats were used in the experiment and were offered the flours of the passion fruit peel in three concentrations: 5, 10, and 15%, and a casein diet as control. The most significant effect on the reduction of the glicemic rate was obtained with the 5% diet. The best values of hepatic glycogen were found in the 5 and 10% diets. The results of this study suggest that the 5% passion fruit flour diet was the one that provided the best reduction of blood glucose levels (59%) and the higher increase of the hepatic glycogen level (71%). The conversion of blood glucose into hepatic glycogen was considered the probable action mechanism involved.


Titto C.G.,University of Sao Paulo | Titto E.A.L.,University of Sao Paulo | Titto R.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Mourao G.B.,Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz ESALQ
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2011

The objectives were to assess the degree of thermolysis capacity as a characteristic of heat tolerance of the Simmental beef cattle and evaluate the effects of shade and shade type (artificial: AS, trees: TS, or no shade: NS) on daily behavior patterns during summer. Black globe temperature (BGT) was different under the two types of shade (P<0.05) and was lower under the TS (P<0.01) and under AS (P>0.01) than average BGT in the sun. Animals when in AS used more intensely the shade (P=0.002) mostly lying down under it (10.00-14.00 hours), while time standing was similar (P=0.107) between TS and NS. Bulls without shade (NS) spent significantly more time at the water trough and most part of the day standing idle (72.4%, 10.1h/14h). TS bulls spent more time grazing/standing (P<0.001). The Simmental bulls that were in TS and AS spent more time ruminating than bulls that stay without shade (NS). The availability of shade changes grazing, rumination and idling behavior of cattle in response to environmental conditions. Shade provided by trees can be more efficient than artificial shading as cattle spent more time grazing when tree shade was available. Thermolysis capacity can be used to select heat-tolerant animals. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.


Martins J.A.,Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz ESALQ | Dallacort R.,Mato Grosso State University | Inoue M.H.,Mato Grosso State University | Santi A.,Mato Grosso State University | And 2 more authors.
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Tropical | Year: 2010

Due to the irregular occurrence of rainfall in Brazilian Savannas, associated with a vast range of models that aim to evaluate it, this study was carried out to estimate the monthly amount of rainfall, at different probability levels, in Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso State. Brazil, by using the Gamma function. Pluviometric data from 1970 to 2007 (38 years), provided by the Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA), collected in a pluviometric station located at 14°37'55"S, 57°28'05"W, and 488 m of altitude, were used. The adjustment analysis between estimated and observed data was carried out in accordance with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov adherence test, at 5% of significance, resulting in no significant differences for monthly periods, including those with several values equal or close to zero, allowing the Gamma distribution use. The highest expected monthly precipitation levels took place from November to March (rainy season), while from June to August were noticed the lowest ones (dry period). The other months can be considered as intermediaries between the dry and rainy seasons.


Chalfoun S.M.,Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais EPAMIG | Pereira M.C.,Instituto Nacional Ciencia e Tecnologia do Cafe INCT CAFE | Carvalho G.R.,Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais EPAMIG | Pereira A.A.,Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais EPAMIG | And 2 more authors.
Coffee Science | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to verify the sensorial characteristics of grains of 21 Coffea arabica L. cultivars obtained from EPAMIG Experimental Farm in Patrocínio, Minas Gerais, in the Alto Paranaíba Region. The coffee cherries were husked and dried in wooden trays, until 11 to 12% humidity and sent to three Brazilian Specialty Coffee Association BSCA accredited professional coffee tasters. The data were statistically evaluated by multivariate analysis to compare the cultivars and group them. The following cultivars, listed in decreasing order according to the first principal component with scores above 80 points, thus considered to produce superior beverage based on the attributes with the highest scores (flavor, sweetness, balance, acidity, clean beverage and aspect), for the two methods, during the two -year study was cultivar H419-6-2-5-2. The ascendancy of the cultivars and progenies tested, whether derived or not from the Timor Hybrid, did not affect their qualitative performance.


Lopes R.B.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária | Pauli G.,Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz ESALQ | Mascarin G.M.,Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz ESALQ | Faria M.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária
Biocontrol Science and Technology | Year: 2011

We evaluated the protection afforded by an oil formulation against non- compatible fungicides in mixtures with conidia of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma) and Beauveria bassiana (Bb). Under laboratory conditions, viability of unformulated (aqueous suspensions) Ma conidia was harmed by recommended label doses of carbendazim (not tested for Bb), and both Ma and Bb conidia were affected by triadimefon. On the other hand, effect of fungicides was usually nil or minimal on conidia formulated as oil-containing suspensions (emulsifiable oil+water). Germination rates for unformulated and oil-formulated Ma conidia subjected to carbendazim were reduced by 77.3 and 12.1%, respectively, compared to their fungicide-free counterparts. Germination rates at 16 h post-inoculation for unformulated and oil-formulated Bb conidia subjected to triadimefon were reduced by 20.5 and 5.5%, respectively, compared to their fungicide-free counterparts. No differences were observed at 20 h post inoculation, indicating a fungistatic action of this compound on Bb conidia. Virulence of unformulated conidia amended with fungicides against third instar Diatraea saccharalis larvae was negatively affected compared to their formulated counterparts. These results suggest that oil-formulated conidia can be effectively protected from damage caused by chemicals, which could have applications in tank mixing or alternate applications with shared spraying equipment, being especially relevant for IPM programs in which mycopesticides and chemicals are simultaneously sprayed. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.


Santos M.A.,Embrapa Soja | Geraldi I.O.,Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz ESALQ | Garcia A.A.F.,Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz ESALQ | Bortolatto N.,Embrapa Soja | And 4 more authors.
Hereditas | Year: 2013

Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is a key process, but despite the economic and environmental importance, few studies about quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling BNF traits are available, even in the economically important crop soybean Glycine max (L.) Merr. In this study, a population of 157 F2:7 RILs derived from crossing soybean cultivars Bossier (high BNF capacity) and Embrapa 20 (medium BNF capacity) was genotyped with 105 simple sequence repeat markers (SSRs). The genetic map obtained has 1231.2 cM and covers about 50% of the genome, with an average interval of 18.1 cM. Three traits, nodule number (NN), the ratio nodule dry weight (NDW)/NN and shoot dry weight (SDW) were used to evaluate BNF performance. A composite interval mapping for multiple traits method (mCIM) analysis mapped two QTLs for SDW (LGs E and L), three for NN (LGs B1, E and I), and one for NDW/NN (LG I); all QTLs were of small effect (R-values ranging from 1.7% to 10.0%) and explained 15.4%, 13.8% and 6.5% of total variation for these three traits, respectively. © 2013 The Authors.


de Araujo Pedron F.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Fink J.R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Dalmolin R.S.D.,Federal University of Santa Maria | de Azevedo A.C.,Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz ESALQ
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2010

The use of the shallow Neossolos (Leptosols and Regosols) is limited in view of the small depth and rock fragments on the surface. There is a lack of information about the definition of the contacts between soil, saprolite and rock in this soil class, as well as tools that would facilitate the morphologic field identification. The objectives of this research were an evaluation of the morphology of the contact between soil, saprolite and rock in the Neossolos derived from the sandstones of the Caturrita Formation, in the central area of Rio Grande do Sul State; to test and to adapt the weathering classes of Pedron et al. (2009) to the conditions of sedimentary rock; and to verify the correlation of the weathering classes with penetration resistance. It was stated that the morphology of the saprolithic layers of the Neossolos Litólicos (Leptosols) and Neossolos Regolíticos (Regosols) derived from sandstone are similar to the same soil classes derived from volcanic rocks in the State, allowing the adaptation of the same weathering classes proposed by Pedron et al. (2009). The tests with the impact penetrometer showed high correlation with the weathering classes adapted in this study. The following contacts were identified in the studied profiles: lithic contact, lithic fragmentary contact, and saprolithic fragmentary contact. The authors suggest, considering its importance, the inclusion of this latter in the Brazilian soil classification system.

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