Escola Superior Agraria de Castelo Branco

Castelo Branco, Portugal

Escola Superior Agraria de Castelo Branco

Castelo Branco, Portugal

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Caldeira I.,Unidade de Tecnologia Alimentar | Anjos O.,Escola Superior Agraria de Castelo Branco | Portal V.,Escola Superior Agraria de Castelo Branco | Belchior A.P.,Unidade de Tecnologia Alimentar | Canas S.,Unidade de Tecnologia Alimentar
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2010

Wooden barrels are used in the ageing or maturation of many alcoholic beverages, namely brandies and wines. However, the high costs related to ageing in wooden barrels have led to a search for alternative technologies. In this study we examined the application of wood fragments to the beverage in order to promote an accelerated ageing. We evaluated the sensory and chemical modifications in brandy aged in presence of two types of wood fragments, from two different woods (Limousin oak wood and Portuguese chestnut wood), and compared those with a brandy aged in wooden barrels. The results of the analysis of variance revealed more significant effects of wood botanical species than the ageing system on the sensory attributes. Concerning the ageing system, significant differences in brandy colour attributes were found, namely golden, topaz and greenish; olfactory attributes such as alcoholic, toasted and coffee; and the gustatory attribute, bitter. The brandies aged in the presence of wood tablets presented the highest intensities of topaz and greenish colour, toasted and coffee odours, while the brandies aged in wooden barrels presented the highest intensities of golden colour, alcohol odour and bitter taste. However, the overall quality of the brandies was similar. The analysis of odourant compounds showed a great discrimination of the brandies based on the ageing system. The brandies aged in wooden barrels presented the highest levels of several ethyl esters, acids, furanic aldehydes and the lowest levels of volatile phenols. Thus, considering the overall quality of the brandies, these results suggest the use of wood fragments to be an interesting alternative technology. On the other hand, the chemical analysis of the brandies showed the possibility of discriminating the ageing technologies based on odourant compound levels. © 2009.


Anjos O.,Escola Superior Agraria de Castelo Branco | Anjos O.,University of Lisbon | Pereira H.,University of Lisbon | Rosa M.E.,University of Lisbon
European Journal of Wood and Wood Products | Year: 2011

The behaviour of cork under three point bending stress in the radial direction was evaluated in relation to porosity (range 2.0-15.4%) and density (range 0.160-0.220 g∈cm -3). The study was made using water-boiled cork planks of two commercial quality classes (good and poor quality) collected at an industrial mill. Cork samples were cut with the largest dimension in two directions, axial and tangential, and with the load zone in the inner part and the outer part of the plank. The stress-strain curves obtained in bending were similar for the different test specimens and similar to those observed for tensile tests in cork but the mechanical resistance of cork in bending was higher than in tension and lower than in compression. The direction of the internal stress in samples submitted to bending was a highly significant factor of variation. The curves showed an initial linear elastic region with a mean Young's modulus of 14 MPa for the tangential direction and 21 MPa for the axial direction, followed by a region of a gradual cork yielding up to a peak load, and failure at an average stress of 1.2 MPa and a strain of 14%. There was significant difference in the bending properties of cork samples obtained from cork planks of different quality classes. Density and porosity were not individually well correlated with the mechanical parameters. It was however possible to model Young's modulus by combining porosity and density. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Anjos O.,Escola Superior Agraria de Castelo Branco | Anjos O.,University of Lisbon | Pereira H.,University of Lisbon | Rosa M.E.,University of Lisbon
Materials and Design | Year: 2010

The behaviour of cork under tensile stress in the tangential direction was studied using cork planks of two commercial quality classes and samples taken at three radial positions in the cork planks. The stress-strain curves showed a linear elastic region approximately until 2% strain (stress at 0.4 MPa), followed by a region of decreasing slope up to the fracture at an average stress of 0.6 MPa (strain of 5%). The radial position in the cork plank was a highly significant factor of variation in the tensile properties. The tensile properties showed statistically significant correlations with cork density and porosity.


Carneiro J.,Escola Superior Agraria de Castelo Branco | Cardenas L.M.,North Wyke Research | Hatch D.J.,North Wyke Research | Trindade H.,University of Trás os Montes e Alto Douro | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Chemistry Letters | Year: 2010

Nitrous oxide (N2O) affects climate change as a greenhouse gas and indirectly contributes to stratospheric ozone depletion. The main source of N2O in soils is denitrification which requires high soil moisture, carbon and nitrate. Nitrification inhibitors can be used to mitigate emissions of N2O from soils. In Portugal, fertilisers are often applied when soils are still relatively warm and moist conditions conducive to denitrification. A Portuguese arable soil was inhibited with dicyandiamide, a nitrification inhibitor and the effect on soil microbiological activity and composition was determined after 46 days. Soils were then incubated and received carbon and ammonium under high soil water conditions and mineral N and N2O fluxes were measured during 22 days. We found that dicyandiamide decreased microbial populations and activity, but did not alter composition. Pre-conditioning of the soil with dicyandiamide was 80% more effective in reducing fluxes of N2O than simultaneous application with fertiliser. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.


Barata A.M.,Instituto Nacional Of Recursos Biologicos Inrb | Rocha F.A.,Instituto Nacional Of Recursos Biologicos Inrb | Lopes V.M.,Instituto Nacional Of Recursos Biologicos Inrb | Maia J.,Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra | And 9 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

Genetic Resources are crucial to support human wellbeing by contributing to increase the income of the rural populations, thus, their general welfare, by maintaining the traditional sustainable agricultural systems. However, their importance goes far beyond the immediate economic value, as it has also drawn considerable interest at scientific and political levels as important elements contributing to local and global food security and quality. Being a repository of unforeseen potentialities, Medicinal, Aromatic and Culinary Plants Genetic Resources (MACP-GR) should be studied and preserved for the benefit of present and future generations. In the past few decades, research programmes on MACP-GR have been focusing on biochemical evaluation of wild material. Moreover, in the last decade, efforts have been made to preserve this genetic material in situ and ex situ. Since 2000, several researchers have pulled synergies and joined efforts and have proposed collaborative networks on MACP-GR. It was possible to define a first MAP Programme for the in situ and ex situ conservation, ethnobotany, characterization, evaluation in support of the promotion of their sustainable utilisation. In Portugal, the MAP collection preserved in ex situ conditions (field, seed and in vitro collections), totals 1224 accessions belonging, inter alia, to the families Liliaceae (3%), Apiaceae (2%) and Lamiaceae (0.7%). So far, 27 species belonging to these families were characterized, evaluated and multiplied, and a total of 1394 ethnobotanical questionnaires were elaborated at national level based on 804 interviews. Through these established networks it was possible to increase the extent and effectiveness of the knowledge about this important pool of genetic material and engage in systematic morphological characterisation and biochemical evaluation. The acquired integrated and complementary knowledge will allow for and the support of MAP future actions, associating the understanding and management of biodiversity and genetic resources conservation and utilisation.


Anjos O.M.S.,Escola Superior Agraria de Castelo Branco | Santos A.J.A.,Researcher Institute Investigacao Cientifica Tropical | Simoes R.M.S.,University of Beira Interior
Appita Journal | Year: 2011

This paper reports on the relationship between the fibre morphology of six Acacia melanoxylon bleached kraft pulps, produced from wood chips with basic densities of 449, 489, 493, 505, 514 and 616 kg/m 3, and their papermaking potential. Six wood samples were selected in order to provide pulps with markedly different fibre morphological properties. The pulps were beaten in a PFI mill at 500, 2500 and 4500 revolutions under a refining intensity of 1.7 N/mm and their papermaking potential evaluated. The mean values of fibre length, fibre width and coarseness ranged between 0.78 and 0.99 mm, 17.8 and 19.4 urn, and 4.8 and 6.2 mg/100 m, respectively. As expected, the fibres characteristics have very high impact on handsheet structure, including smoothness, and on mechanical and optical properties, for the unbeaten pulps. At a given beating input (same PFI revolutions), the differences between pulps remain very high. Moreover, for a given paper density, tensile and tear strength, and light scattering coefficient are very sensitive to mean pulp fibre characteristics.


Collado L.M.,Escola Superior Agraria de Castelo Branco | Ribeiro M.M.,Escola Superior Agraria de Castelo Branco | Antunes M.A.,Escola Superior Agraria de Castelo Branco
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Leyland cypress is a particularly difficult-to-root hybrid and, since hybrids can only be propagated through vegetative propagation, a rooting experiment took place in Portugal (Castelo Branco), in February 2007. The aim was to study the influence of different indole-3- butyric acid (IBA) concentrations, wounding the base of the cutting and rooting duration period on the vegetative propagation of the hybrid ×Cupressocyparis leylandii (A.B. Jacks. & Dallim.) Dallim. Three different IBA concentrations were used: 3,000, 8,000 and 13,000 ppm. The data was recorded 3 and 4 months after cutting bench plantation. The parameters analyzed were: the number of rooted cuttings, the number of cuttings with callus formation and dead, the number of roots (NR) and the main mean root length (MRL) per rooted cutting. The hybrid responded significantly and positively to the IBA application, but the rooting rate, the NR and the MRL were independent of the auxin concentration. After 4 months, the highest values were obtained with wounding and 13,000 ppm of IBA, with a rooting rate of 27%, 0.17 average roots and 14.3 mm average length of the main root per rooted cutting. Those values were significantly superior to 0 and 3% of rooting, 0 and 3.33 roots per cutting and, 0 and 1 mm of length of the main root, in the control and in the wounding treatments, respectively. No differences were found in the percentage of rooted cuttings, NR and MRL, between the treatments with wounding + IBA from the treatments with only IBA application. The experiment proved that the hybrid can not root unless IBA is applied, and that the wounding does not significantly increases the number of rooted cuttings.


Ribeiro M.M.,Escola Superior Agraria de Castelo Branco | Collado L.M.,Escola Superior Agraria de Castelo Branco | Antunes M.A.,Escola Superior Agraria de Castelo Branco
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Cherry laurel is very common as an ornamental plant, due to the large glossy leaves, fast growth, and shade and hedging tolerance. The influence of different indole-3-butiric acid (IBA) concentrations (1,000, 2,500, 5,000 and 7,500 ppm) in cherry laurel vegetative propagation was evaluated in early spring 2007. The data was gathered one month after bench cutting plantation. The parameters measured and analyzed were the number of rooted cuttings, the number of cuttings with callus formation and mortality, the mean number of roots (NR) and the mean main root length (MRL), per rooted cutting. The IBA application influenced the rooting percentage, the NR and the MRL regardless of IBA concentration. In P. laurocerasus rooting ranged from 67% to 80%, when IBA was applied, which was significantly higher than 37% rooted cuttings in the control. The highest NR and MRL values were found in the treatment with 7,500 ppm IBA (27.2 roots per cutting) and with 1,000 ppm IBA (MRL was 24.76 mm), respectively. Significantly lower values were obtained in the control: 5.56 NR and 9.4 mm MRL. Thus, IBA application significantly increased rootingwith cuttings planted early in spring.

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