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Nakamura-Messenger K.,ESCG Jacobs Technology | Nakamura-Messenger K.,NASA | Clemett S.J.,NASA | Clemett S.J.,ESCG ERC Inc. | And 9 more authors.
American Mineralogist | Year: 2012

Wassonite, ideally stoichiometric TiS, is a titanium monosulfide not previously observed in nature, that was discovered within the Yamato 691 EH3 enstatite chondrite. Twelve Ti-S phase grains were identified in a rare barred olivine (BO) chondrule; three of the grains were extracted by the focused ion beam technique. Because of the submicrometer size of the wassonite grains, it was not possible to determine conventional macroscopic properties. However, the chemical composition and crystal structure were well constrained by extensive quantitative energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and electron diffraction using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystal system for wassonite is rhombohedral (a = 3.42 ± 0.07, c = 26.50 ± 0.53 Å) with space group: R3̄m, cell volume: 268.4 ± 0.53 Å 3, Z = 9, density (calculated): 4.452 g/cm 3, empirical formula: (Ti 0.93,Fe 0.06,Cr 0.01)S. The wassonite grains crystallized from the chondrule melt that was itself formed in the solar nebula, not on the parent asteroid. The other crystalline phases in the BO chondrule include forsterite, enstatite, troilite, metallic Fe-Ni, and osbornite (as well as the new Ti-S-bearing minerals and schollhornite) are highly reduced and indicate formation at low-oxygen fugacities.

Stansbery G.,NASA | Liou J.-C.,NASA | Mulrooney M.,Orbital Debris Program Office | Horstman M.,ESCG ERC Inc.
Advances in the Astronautical Sciences | Year: 2010

The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office places great emphasis on obtaining and understanding direct measurements of the orbital debris environment. The Orbital Debris Program Office's environmental models are all based on these measurements. Because OD measurements must cover a very wide range of sizes and altitudes, one technique realistically cannot be used for all measurements. In general, radar measurements have been used for lower altitudes and optical measurements for higher altitude orbits. For very small debris, in situ measurements such as returned spacecraft surfaces are utilized. In addition to receiving information from large debris (> 5-10 cm diameter) from the U.S. Space Surveillance Network, NASA conducts statistical measurements of the debris population for smaller sizes. NASA collects data from the Haystack and Goldstone radars for debris in low Earth orbit as small as 2-4 mm diameter and from the Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope for debris near geosynchronous orbit altitude for sizes as small as 30-60 cm diameter. NASA is also currently examining the radiator panel of the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, which was exposed to space for 16 years and was recently returned to Earth during the STS-125 Space Shuttle mission. This paper will give an overview of these on-going measurement programs at NASA as well as discuss progress and plans for new instruments and techniques in the near future.

Nakamura-Messenger K.,NASA | Keller L.P.,NASA | Clemett S.J.,NASA | Clemett S.J.,ESCG ERC Inc. | And 8 more authors.
American Mineralogist | Year: 2010

Brownleeite, ideally stoichiometric MnSi, is a manganese silicide not previously observed in nature that was discovered within an interplanetary dust particle that likely originated from a comet. Three submicrometer brownleeite grains were found, with one of them poikilitically enclosed by Mn-bearing forsterite. Owing to the small size of the brownleeite grains, it was not possible to determine conventional macroscopic properties of this mineral; however, the chemical composition and crystal structure were well constrained by extensive quantitative energy dispersive X-ray analysis and elec-tron diffraction using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystal system for brownleeite is cubic (a = 4.557 Aring;) with space group P213, cell volume = 94.63 Aring;3, Z = 4, density (calculated) = 2.913 g/cm 3, and empirical formula: (Mn0.77Fe0.18Cr0.05) Si. These brownleeite grains likely formed as high-temperature condensates either in the early Solar System or in the outflow of an evolved star or supernova explosion.

Nakamura-Messenger K.,NASA | Keller L.P.,NASA | Clemett S.J.,NASA | Clemett S.J.,ESCG ERC Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Meteoritics and Planetary Science | Year: 2011

We have developed new sample preparation and analytical techniques tailored for entire aerogel tracks of Wild 2 sample analyses both on "carrot" and "bulbous" tracks. We have successfully ultramicrotomed an entire track along its axis while preserving its original shape. This innovation allowed us to examine the distribution of fragments along the entire track from the entrance hole all the way to the terminal particle. The crystalline silicates we measured have Mg-rich compositions and O isotopic compositions in the range of meteoritic materials, implying that they originated in the inner solar system. The terminal particle of the carrot track is a 16O-rich forsteritic grain that may have formed in a similar environment as Ca-, Al-rich inclusions and amoeboid olivine aggregates in primitive carbonaceous chondrites. The track also contains submicron-sized diamond grains likely formed in the solar system. Complex aromatic hydrocarbons distributed along aerogel tracks and in terminal particles. These organics are likely cometary but affected by shock heating. © The Meteoritical Society, 2011.

Messenger S.,NASA | Nakamura-Messenger K.,NASA | Keller L.P.,NASA | Clemett S.J.,NASA | Clemett S.J.,ESCG ERC Inc.
Meteoritics and Planetary Science | Year: 2015

We performed chemical, mineralogical, and isotopic studies of the first interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere without the use of silicone oil. The collection substrate, polyurethane foam, effectively traps impacting particles, but the lack of an embedding medium results in significant particle fragmentation. Two dust particles found on the collector exhibit the typical compositional and mineralogical properties of chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs). Hydrogen and nitrogen isotopic imaging revealed isotopic anomalies of typical magnitude and spatial variability observed in previous CP-IDP studies. Oxygen isotopic imaging shows that individual mineral grains and glass with embedded metal and sulfide (GEMS) grains are dominated by solar system materials. No systematic differences are observed in element abundance patterns of GEMS grains from the dry collection versus silicone oil-collected IDPs. This initial study establishes the validity of a new IDP collection substrate that avoids the use of silicone oil as a collection medium, removing the need for this problematic contaminant and the organic solvents necessary to remove it. Additional silicone oil-free collections of this type are needed to determine more accurate bulk element abundances of IDPs and to examine the indigenous soluble organic components of IDPs. © The Meteoritical Society, 2015.

Murphy K.J.,NASA | Bibb K.L.,NASA | Brauckmann G.J.,NASA | Rhode M.N.,NASA | And 5 more authors.
29th AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference 2011 | Year: 2011

The Apollo-derived Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), part of NASA's now-cancelled Constellation Program, has become the reference design for the new Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The MPCV will serve as the exploration vehicle for all near-term human space missions. A strategic wind-tunnel test program has been executed at numerous facilities throughout the country to support several phases of aerodynamic database development for the Orion spacecraft. This paper presents a summary of the experimental static aerodynamic data collected to-date for the Orion Crew Module (CM) capsule. The test program described herein involved personnel and resources from NASA Langley Research Center, NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Johnson Space Flight Center, Arnold Engineering and Development Center, Lockheed Martin Space Sciences, and Orbital Sciences. Data has been compiled from eight different wind tunnel tests in the CEV Aerosciences Program. Comparisons are made as appropriate to highlight effects of angle of attack, Mach number, Reynolds number, and model support system effects.

Rhode M.N.,NASA | Chan D.T.,NASA | Niskey C.J.,Black Ram Engineering Services LLC | Wilson T.M.,ESCG ERC Inc
29th AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference 2011 | Year: 2011

The aerodynamic database for the Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) was developed largely from wind tunnel tests involving powered jet simulations of the rocket exhaust plumes, supported by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The LAS contains three solid rocket motors used in various phases of an abort to provide propulsion, steering, and Launch Abort Tower (LAT) jettison from the Crew Module (CM). This paper describes a pair of wind tunnel experiments performed at transonic and supersonic speeds to determine the aerodynamic effects due to proximity and jet interactions during LAT jettison from the CM at the end of an abort. The tests were run using two different scale models at angles of attack from 150° to 200°, sideslip angles from -10° to +10°, and a range of powered thrust levels from the jettison motors to match various jet simulation parameters with flight values. Separation movements between the CM and LAT included axial and vertical translations as well as relative pitch angle between the two bodies. The paper details aspects of the model design, nozzle scaling methodology, instrumentation, testing procedures, and data reduction. Sample data are shown to highlight trends seen in the results.

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