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Cummins S.,Queen Mary, University of London | Smith D.M.,Queen Mary, University of London | Aitken Z.,Queen Mary, University of London | Dawson J.,ESADE | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics | Year: 2010

Background: Previous research has suggested that fruits and vegetables are more expensive and less readily available in more deprived communities. However, this evidence is mainly based on small samples drawn from specific communities often located in urban settings and thus is not generalisable to national contexts. The present study explores the influence of neighbourhood deprivation and local retail structure on the price and availability of fruit and vegetables in a sample of areas representing the diversity of urban-rural environments across Scotland, UK. Methods: A sample of 310 stores located in 10 diverse areas of Scotland was surveyed and data on the price and availability of a basket of 15 fruit and vegetable items were collected. The data were analysed to identify the influence of store type and neighbourhood deprivation on the price and availability of fruits and vegetables. Results: Neighbourhood deprivation and store type did not significantly predict the price of a basket of fruit and vegetables within the sample, although baskets did decrease in price as store size increased. The highest prices were found in the smallest stores located in the most deprived areas. Availability of fruit and vegetables is lower in small shops located within deprived neighbourhoods compared to similar shops in affluent areas. Overall, availability increases with increasing store size. Conclusions: Availability of fruit and vegetables significantly varies by neighbourhood deprivation in small stores. Policies aimed at promoting sales of fruit and vegetable in these outlets may benefit residents in deprived areas. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The British Dietetic Association Ltd. Source


Domingo A.,University Pompeu Fabra | Bellalta B.,University Pompeu Fabra | Palacin M.,University Pompeu Fabra | Oliver M.,University Pompeu Fabra | Almirall E.,ESADE
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine | Year: 2013

Local governments have decided to take advantage of the presence of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in their cities to efficiently manage several applications in their daily responsibilities. The enormous amount of information collected by sensor devices allows the automation of several real-time services to improve city management by using intelligent traffic-light patterns during rush hour, reducing water consumption in parks, or efficiently routing garbage collection trucks throughout the city [1]. The sensor information required by these examples is mostly self-consumed by city-designed applications and managers. © 2013 IEEE. Source


Almirall E.,ESADE | Cortes U.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications | Year: 2010

Cultural Algorithms, by imitating the social behavior of human communities are able to attain good results while exhibiting a remarkable frugality in resources. This paper explores their needs in terms of sample size and how these needs are affected by the complexity of the information being addressed, with a somewhat surprising result: less is more, smaller sample sizes conduce to better results at any level of complexity. © 2010 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved. Source


Mayer-Haug K.,WHU - Otto Beisheim School of Management | Read S.,IMD | Brinckmann J.,ESADE | Dew N.,Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey | Grichnik D.,University of St. Gallen
Research Policy | Year: 2013

As the broad link between small and medium-sized firm activity and key policy goals such as employment or economic growth has become generally accepted, the conversation has focused on a more nuanced understanding of the entrepreneurial engines of economic activity. A significant body of research looking at antecedents to venture performance has identified that entrepreneurial talent variables account for meaningful differences in venture performance and that significant heterogeneity exists across performance measures. These are important issues for institutions and policy makers seeking to achieve specific economic goals (e.g.; survival or growth of ventures, employment or revenue). Using meta-analysis, we integrate this work to view connections between aspects of entrepreneurial talent and different performance outcomes. Our investigation includes 50,045 firms (K of 183 studies) and summarizes 1002 observations of small and medium-sized firms. Analysis of these data yields an unexpectedly weak connection between education and performance. Furthermore, growth, scale (number of employees) and sales outcomes are significantly related to planning skills, while profit and other financial and qualitative measures are strongly connected with the network surrounding the firm founders. Moreover, we observe that entrepreneurial talent is more relevant in developing economies. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Govindarajan R.,ESADE | Llueguera E.,Institute Catal dOncologia | Melero A.,Institute Catal dOncologia | Molero J.,Institute Catal dOncologia | And 3 more authors.
Revista de Calidad Asistencial | Year: 2010

Purpose: Statistical Process Control (SPC) was applied to monitor patient set-up in radiotherapy and, when the measured set-up error values indicated a loss of process stability, its root cause was identified and eliminated to prevent set-up errors. Materials and methods: Set up errors were measured for medial-lateral (ml), cranial-caudal (cc) and anterior-posterior (ap) dimensions and then the upper control limits were calculated. Once the control limits were known and the range variability was acceptable, treatment set-up errors were monitored using sub-groups of 3 patients, three times each shift. These values were plotted on a control chart in Áreal time. Results: Control limit values showed that the existing variation was acceptable. Set-up errors, measured and plotted on a X chart, helped monitor the set-up process stability and, if and when the stability was lost, treatment was interrupted, the particular cause responsible for the non-random pattern was identified and corrective action was taken before proceeding with the treatment. Conclusion: SPC protocol focuses on controlling the variability due to assignable cause instead of focusing on patient-to-patient variability which normally does not exist. Compared to weekly sampling of set-up error in each and every patient, which may only ensure that just those sampled sessions were set-up correctly, the SPC method enables set-up error prevention in all treatment sessions for all patients and, at the same time, reduces the control costs. © 2009 SECA. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved. Source

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