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Cheng A.F.,Johns Hopkins University | Atchison J.,Johns Hopkins University | Kantsiper B.,Johns Hopkins University | Rivkin A.S.,Johns Hopkins University | And 6 more authors.
Acta Astronautica | Year: 2015

The Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission will be the first space experiment to demonstrate asteroid impact hazard mitigation by using a kinetic impactor to deflect an asteroid. AIDA is an international cooperation entering Phase A study at NASA and ESA, consisting of two mission elements: the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and the ESA Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) rendezvous mission. The primary goals of AIDA are (i) to test our ability to perform a spacecraft impact on a potentially hazardous near-Earth asteroid and (ii) to measure and characterize the deflection caused by the impact. The AIDA target will be the binary asteroid (65803) Didymos, with the deflection experiment to occur in October, 2022. The DART impact on the secondary member of the binary at ∼6 km/s will alter the binary orbit period, which can be measured by Earth-based observatories. The AIM spacecraft will characterize the asteroid target and monitor results of the impact in situ at Didymos. AIDA will return fundamental new information on the mechanical response and impact cratering process at real asteroid scales, and consequently on the collisional evolution of asteroids with implications for planetary defense, human spaceflight, and near-Earth object science and resource utilization. AIDA will return unique information on an asteroid's strength, surface physical properties and internal structure. Supporting Earth-based optical and radar observations, numerical simulation studies and laboratory experiments will be an integral part of AIDA. © 2015 IAA.

Cheng A.F.,Johns Hopkins University | Rivkin A.S.,Johns Hopkins University | Reed C.,Johns Hopkins University | Barnouin O.,Johns Hopkins University | And 5 more authors.
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2013

The abstract knowledge that small body impacts on Earth continue to occur to this day became concrete reality for the residents of Chelyabinsk, Russia on Feb. 15, 2013 with the unexpected explosion of a small asteroid over the city, releasing several hundred kilotons of energy. ESA and NASA are studying techniques to protect the Earth from a potential asteroid impact, including deflection of the asteroid by a spacecraft impact. The AIDA mission will perform the first test of this technique for asteroid deflection. It is an innovative, low cost, international collaboration, consisting of two independent but mutually supporting missions, one of which is the asteroid kinetic impactor and the other is the characterization spacecraft. These two missions are, respectively, the US Double Asteroid Redirection Mission (DART) and the European Space Agency's Asteroid Impact Monitoring (AIM) mission. DART will deflect the trajectory of an asteroid and measure the deflection to within 10%. This will be done using a binary asteroid target with accurate determinations of orbital period by ground-based observations. AIDA will return vital data to determine the momentum transfer efficiency of the kinetic impact and key physical properties of the target asteroid. AIDA follows the previous Don Quijote mission study performed by ESA in 2005-2007, with the objective of demonstrating the ability to modify the trajectory of an asteroid and measure the trajectory change. Don Quijote involved an orbiter and an impactor spacecraft, with the orbiter arriving first and measuring the deflection, and with the orbiter making additional characterization measurements. Unlike Don Quijote, DART envisions an impactor spacecraft to intercept the secondary member of a binary near-Earth asteroid, using ground-based observations to measure the deflection. In the joint AIDA mission, DART combines with the ESA AIM mission which will rendezvous with the asteroid. Each of these missions has independent value, with greatly increased return when combined. AIDA will be a valuable precursor to human spaceflight to an asteroid, as it would return unique information on an asteroid's strength and internal structure and would be particularly relevant to a human mission for asteroid mitigation. AIDA will furthermore return fundamental new science data on impact cratering and collisional evolution of asteroids. AIDA will target the binary Near-Earth asteroid Didymos with two small launches, with the deflection experiment to occur in October, 2022.

Bergquist K.,ESA Headquarters
European Space Agency Bulletin | Year: 2014

The first ESA delegation to visit China in early spring of 1979 was led by ESA Director General Roy Gibson. The State Science and Technology Commission has since been renamed Ministry of Science and Technology and the Center for Space Science and Applied Research (CSSAR) was renamed recently and is now called the National Space Science Center (NSSC). The Chinese space program is structured around many different organizations. The reasons are mainly historical and specific to the Chinese administrative structure. The China National Space Administration (CNSA), under the State Administration for Space, Technology and Industry for National Defense (SASTIND) which itself belongs to the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, together with SASTIND is mainly responsible for drafting guidelines, policies, laws and regulations. Typically, the CNSA represents the Chinese government in international forums such as the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space or meetings of the International Atomic Energy Agency.

Heppener M.,ESA Headquarters | Jordahl A.,ESA Headquarters | Kircher E.,European Space Agency | Bullock M.R.,European Space Agency
European Space Agency Bulletin | Year: 2013

ESA's High-level Science Policy Advisory Committee (HISPAC) has identified a number of overarching scientific themes, called the 'Grand Science Themes' that will help to focus the key science and technology priorities of ESA. HISPAC takes inputs from the established ESA Science Advisory Structure's Working Groups and Committees, which are the source of specific science advice for the selection of missions and the approved programs. It also addresses the study of, and protection strategies against, space debris and near-Earth objects. Lastly, it includes the challenges associated with long-distance space travel. HISPAC's Grand Science Themes include terrestrial and cosmic climate, understanding gravity, life in the Universe, and cosmic radiation and magnetism. The Future Technology Advisory Panel (FTAP) prepares recommendations on technologies that will enable breakthroughs in future science missions.

Brunstrom A.,ESA Harwell | Mancini P.,ESA Headquarters | Sephton T.,European Space Agency | Huber R.,European Space Agency | And 3 more authors.
European Space Agency Bulletin | Year: 2012

The European Space Agency (ESA) has initiated the 'Integrated Applications Promotion (IAP) Ambassadors' program to convince new users from many different sectors that space-based services can help to meet their needs. The main purpose of IAP is to engage with new user communities who lack information and are ignorant about space technology. Its success depends upon convincing people from these sectors that the space industry can do something useful for them. This requires the creation of a local presence everywhere without increasing costs or dissipating the critical mass of existing ESA centers. The ESA has set up a network of Ambassador Platforms (APs) to address this challenge. Each AP is dedicated to opening up one or more user communities without any standard model or similarity. Two APs are dissimilar, as they have to reflect the different characteristics of the communities being addressed by them.

Linares L.,ESA Headquarters | Baierl N.R.,ESA Headquarters
European Space Agency Bulletin | Year: 2012

The European Space Agency (ESA) is developing a strategy to ensure that Europe has independent access to space and continue to maintain its leading position in the world launch services market. The ESA has started investigating the feasibility of a new approach for European space access, aimed at making its launch services fully self-sufficient in the long term. The new approach is called 'New European Launch Service' (NELS) and is aimed at delivering competitive launch services to governmental and private European customers without the need for public funding in exploitation, while maintaining competitiveness with the rapidly changing worldwide launch market. The space agency has realized that sustainability of this sector is critical, as its competitiveness is a key factor in the development of space applications. Important decisions regarding future plans and space missions are to be taken at the Ministerial Council in November 2012 to ensure a long-term sustainable and competitive European launch service.

Belin S.,Airbus | Averlant J.-F.,Airbus | Dubuc F.,Airbus | Villers S.,Airbus | Reis A.C.,ESA Headquarters
Programme and Abstract Book - 5th ESA Workshop on Satellite Navigation Technologies and European Workshop on GNSS Signals and Signal Processing, NAVITEC 2010 | Year: 2010

This paper describes the requirements toward a launcher GNSS chains for navigation and safeguard tracking applications. ©2010 IEEE.

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