Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-1 | Award Amount: 1.16M | Year: 2010
Currently two per cent of European consumers are suffering from coeliac disease that demands a strict gluten-free diet. Gluten is part of all common cereals and therefore contained in basic foodstuffs like bakery products and pasta. The market for gluten-free products, which is predominately served by small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), showed considerable growth in the last years. However, the consumer acceptance of respective products is still limited by their insufficient taste, texture and mouth-feeling. GlutenFree will enable SMEs to produce premium gluten-free bakery products and pasta well accepted by the consumer. This will allow the SMEs to participate in this profitable market sector and concurrently improve their competitiveness. The new products have the potential to generate extra annual turnover and additional employment at the SMEs involved. Society will also benefit because coeliac patients as well as healthy consumers will have access to a wide pattern of tasty gluten-free foods which will make the diet and life of coeliac disease patients easier. Multilateral cooperation between food producers, ingredient providers and research institutes will provide required research and development resources as well as scientific knowledge. Alternative ingredients, namely plant proteins and hydrocolloids, should be developed which are able to replace gluten and to form similar network structures in bakery products and pasta. The interaction of different components in the recipes during baking and pasta processing and their influence on the texture and flavour formation will be analysed in order to allow specifically improvements. Sensory improvement should be ensured by using proper raw materials, aromatic malts or sourdoughs. Evaluation of consumer preferences, acceptance and needs will be an integral part of the research and allow target-oriented food developments and promise well accepted products.
Wiezer A.,University of Gottingen |
Liesegang H.,University of Gottingen |
Offschanka S.,University of Gottingen |
Angelov A.,TU Munich |
And 2 more authors.
Microbial Cell Factories
Sourdough has played a significant role in human nutrition and culture for thousands of years and is still of eminent importance for human diet and the bakery industry. Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis is the predominant key bacterium in traditionally fermented sourdoughs.The genome of L. sanfranciscensis TMW 1.1304 isolated from an industrial sourdough fermentation was sequenced with a combined Sanger/454-pyrosequencing approach followed by gap closing by walking on fosmids. The sequencing data revealed a circular chromosomal sequence of 1,298,316 bp and two additional plasmids, pLS1 and pLS2, with sizes of 58,739 bp and 18,715 bp, which are predicted to encode 1,437, 63 and 19 orfs, respectively. The overall GC content of the chromosome is 34.71%. Several specific features appear to contribute to the ability of L. sanfranciscensis to outcompete other bacteria in the fermentation. L. sanfranciscensis contains the smallest genome within the lactobacilli and the highest density of ribosomal RNA operons per Mbp genome among all known genomes of free-living bacteria, which is important for the rapid growth characteristics of the organism. A high frequency of gene inactivation and elimination indicates a process of reductive evolution. The biosynthetic capacity for amino acids scarcely availably in cereals and exopolysaccharides reveal the molecular basis for an autochtonous sourdough organism with potential for further exploitation in functional foods. The presence of two CRISPR/cas loci versus a high number of transposable elements suggests recalcitrance to gene intrusion and high intrinsic genome plasticity. © 2011 Vogel et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source
Brandt M.J.,Ernst Bocker GmbH and Co KG
Fermented cereals play a significant role in human nutrition in all parts of the world where cereals grow. These fermentations are started spontaneously or there have been traditional techniques developed in order to keep starter cultures for these processes alive. With the growing impact of industrial microbiology during 20th century this traditional starter culture propagation was replaced often, especially in the dairy industry, by the use of pure, frozen or freeze-dried cultures grown on microbial media. In contrast to the production of ethanol from cereals, in sourdough a pasteurization step before inoculation is avoided due to gelatinization of starch and inactivation of endogenous enzymes. Therefore cultures must be competitive to the relatively high microbial load of the cereal raw materials and well adapted to the specific ecology determined by the kind of cereal and the process conditions. Less adapted cultures could be used, but then the process of back-slopping of cultures is limited. Although cereal fermentations take the biggest volume among fermented foods, only for sourdoughs commercial cultures are available. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source
Ruhmkorf C.,TU Munich |
Rubsam H.,TU Munich |
Becker T.,TU Munich |
Bork C.,TU Braunschweig |
And 4 more authors.
European Food Research and Technology
The effect of structurally different bacterial homoexopolysaccharides on gluten-free bread quality and their properties to act as hydrocolloids was investigated. Furthermore, exopolysaccharides (EPS) were analyzed structurally by asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation and methylation analysis. Breads were made of buckwheat and rice flour with EPS of Lactobacillus (L.) curvatus TMW 1. 624, L. reuteri TMW 1. 106, L. animalis TMW 1. 971, and L. sanfranciscensis TMW 1. 392 or hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) at 1 % w/w flour base. Water-holding capacity, specific volume, crumb analysis, baking loss, moisture content, and crumb hardness were determined. Only HPMC and the glucan of L. curvatus TMW 1. 624 retained water, and all supplements increased the specific volume. Furthermore, crumb hardness was decreased by additives to different extents. The moisture content, baking loss, and crumb firmness were improved most by dextran of L. curvatus TMW 1. 624. Structure analysis of EPS revealed that L. animalis TMW 1. 971 produces a fructan and a glucan and that the dextran of L. curvatus TMW 1. 624 had highest molecular weight of analyzed EPS, ranging from 118 to 242 MDa. A methylation analysis demonstrated differences in branching. Dextran of L. reuteri TMW 1. 106 is branched in position 4 (18-19 %), whereas dextran of L. curvatus TMW 1. 624 is branched in position 3 (8-9 %). Overall, this study gives insight into structure function relations of different EPS. A structure function relation is suggested in which high weight average molar mass (Mw) and branching at position 3 of the glucose monomer foster a compact conformation of the molecule, which enables an increased water-binding capacity and promotes superior (structural) effects in gluten-free breads. The dextran of L. curvatus TMW 1. 624 was the most promising candidate for applications in gluten-free bread quality improvements as it retains its size distribution and root mean square even with increasing Mw and forms an increasingly compact molecule. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source
Zhang C.,University of Alberta |
Brandt M.J.,Ernst Bocker GmbH and Co KG |
Schwab C.,University of Alberta |
Ganzle M.G.,University of Alberta
Cooperative metabolism of lactobacilli in silage fermentation converts lactate to propionate. This study aimed to determine whether propionate production by Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus diolivorans can be applied for bread preservation. Propionate formation was observed in cofermentation with L. buchneri and L. diolivorans in modified MRS broth as well as sourdough with low, medium and high ash contents. 48 mM of propionate was formed in sourdough with medium ash content, but only 9 and 28 mM propionate were formed in sourdoughs prepared from white wheat flour or whole wheat flour, respectively. Acetate levels were comparable in all three sourdoughs and ranged from 160 to 175 mM. Sourdough fermented with L. buchneri and L. diolivorans was used in breadmaking and its effect on fungal spoilage was compared to traditional sourdough or propionate addition to straight doughs. Bread slices were inoculated with Aspergillus clavatus, Cladosporium spp., Mortierella spp. or Penicillium roquefortii. The use of 20% experimental sourdough inhibited growth of three of the four moulds for more than 12 days. The use of 10% experimental sourdough deferred growth of two moulds by one day. Bread from traditional sourdough with added acetate had less effect in inhibiting mould growth. In conclusion, cofermentation with L. buchneri and L. diolivorans represents a process to increase antifungal capacities of bread. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source