Proceedings of the Air and Waste Management Association's Annual Conference and Exhibition, AWMA | Year: 2012
The relative impacts associated with various airport specific inputs and assumptions were studied. The relative sensitivity to total airport inventories and resulting ambient concentrations associated with Ground Support Equipment (GSE) and Aircraft Gate Locations, Representation and Assignments were compared using the US Federal Aviation Administration's Emission and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS). The Beijing Capital International Airport was selected. Two scenarios were run to compare results and flexibility of using the various GSE and default values available within EDMS. The two scenarios compared for GSE focus on use of a now airport GSE population vs. use of the default GSE as provided within the EDMS model. The results showed a decrease in NOx and particulate matter due to the differences in which units are utilizing gasoline vs. diesel. The assignment of gates for the purposes of GSE emission locations, aircraft emissions, and taxiway selected present additional concerns. Emissions associated with taxiways were significantly impacted by larger vs. smaller groupings of gates. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 105th AWMA Annual Conference and Exhibition (San Antonio, TX 6/19-22/2012).
Thomas A.O.,ERM |
CONCAWE Reports | Year: 2016
Studies on the natural attenuation of biodiesel and biodiesel/petroleum distillate mixtures in soil and groundwater are discussed. Relevant data on biodiesel composition, the physical/chemical properties of fatty acid alkyl esters and published data from laboratory and field-based studies of natural attenuation are included. Natural attenuation would appear to be significant in controlling the fate, behavior and potential risks posed by biodiesel. Significant attenuation mechanisms include sorption, autoxidation, and biodegradation via a variety of redox processes, e.g., the exact role and contribution of each will depend on the nature of the release, the characteristics of the biodiesel, and the environmental setting.
Proceedings of the Air and Waste Management Association's Annual Conference and Exhibition, AWMA | Year: 2014
EPA's ongoing review of NAAQS is expected to continue to be a priority for EPA as well as guidance for implementation of SIP and New Source Review (NSR) for PM2.5 and SO2. The treatment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in NSR continues to be a focus for EPA as courts review EPA's approach to GHG permitting. Although rulemaking for MACT standards for hazardous air pollutants from most source categories have been implemented, potential revisions to certain of these standards are being considered by EPA. EPA's current regulatory priorities are presented with feedback from state/local regulators and industry on these initiatives. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the AWMA's 107th Annual Conference & Exhibition (Long Beach, CA 6/24-27/2014).
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE European HSE Conference and Exhibition 2013: Health, Safety, Environment and Social Responsibility in the Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Industry | Year: 2013
In Europe, the exploration of shale gas resources has just started, but with the exception of Poland most activities have been halted or delayed because of stakeholder concerns about environmental risks of hydraulic fracturing. With examples from Poland and Germany, the paper summarizes these socio-economic challenges, covers the sensitive dialogue of technical experts with non-technical stakeholders, discusses suggestions on how to address perceived versus real environmental risks, and concludes with an outlook on how these constraints may be overcome so that shale gas developments in Europe may proceed. According to published stakeholder concerns and media coverage in Europe, most of the concerns are linked to a perceived risk of groundwater contamination through the use of chemicals during hydraulic fracturing, or the release of methane or induced seismicity. Based on an analysis of perceived versus real environmental risks, and how they have been addressed in the media, suggestions for a re-focus of stakeholder communication and management are drawn. Operators might be well advised to develop a collaborative strategy to overcome stakeholder concerns in an industry with a poor reputation and biased media coverage. The paper provides suggestions for such a strategy refocus with the objectives of creating stakeholder acceptance and gaining supporters. Elements of this are full disclosure of project information, stakeholder engagement and education, promotion of shale gas benefits, and avoidance of environmental and health & safety impacts. The critical public discussions in Europe have not only halted or delayed shale gas developments, they have also impacted industry reputation in the region, including conventional oil and developments, as well as other industries. Stakeholder acceptance has thus become the dominant challenge of shale gas developments. It is therefore crucial for the operators and partners to collaboratively invest in promotion, information, and education. This in return will balance biased media coverage, and gain trust and acceptance, thus allowing for further shale gas developments in Europe. Copyright 2013, Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Arctic and Extreme Environments Conference and Exhibition, AEE 2013 | Year: 2013
This paper presents Alaska as a case study for evaluating the impact of non-technical risk on oil and gas exploration and development in the Arctic. Stakeholder relationships, regulatory uncertainty, government funding, listing species under the Endangered Species Act, cumulative impacts, and litigation are all non-technical risks that can delay oil and gas projects. Since 2005, there have been over a dozen legal challenges to oil and gas activities due to non-technical risks. The magnitude of costs associated with project delays due to non-technical risks in Alaska's Arctic is on the order of billions. The February 2008 Chukchi Sea Lease Sale 193 attracted 667 bids totaling almost $3.4 billion, the most for any offshore lease sale in Alaska's history. In 2012, according to a United States Department of Interior report, approximately three-quarters of Alaska's offshore leases (3.7 million acres) were subject to litigation. As a result of legal challenges, agency staff must respond to court orders rather than process permits and authorizations required for exploration and development. With permit applications sitting idle, company profit margins are diminished and public trust deteriorates. In recent years, three major oil companies have reported spending over $75 million over five years to collect environmental data, yet data gaps are still perceived to exist. In particular, the absence of a regional assessment of cumulative impacts of development activities is leaving companies and authorizing agencies vulnerable to stakeholder scrutiny and litigation. Despite these issues, sustainable project exploration and development is possible. Understanding what non-technical risks exist, and then integrating methods to minimize them at the strategic leadership level during the pre-feasibility stage can minimize delays and lay the foundation for sustainable oil and gas projects. Copyright 2013, Society of Petroleum Engineers.