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Peterseim J.H.,University of Technology, Sydney | Hellwig U.,ERK Eckrohrkessel GmbH | Tadros A.,The Engineering Excellence Group Mechanical Engineering Leader | White S.,University of Technology, Sydney
Solar Energy | Year: 2014

Recently, the first concentrating solar power-biomass hybrid power plant commenced operation in Spain and the combination of both energy sources is promising to lower plant investment. This assessment investigates 17 different concentrating solar power-biomass hybrid configurations in regards their technical, economic and environmental performance. The integration of molten salt thermal storage is considered for the best performing hybrid configuration. While thermal storage can increase plant output significantly even 7. h full-load thermal storage plants would generate the majority of the electricity, 70%, from the biomass resource.Only mature technologies with references >5. MWe are considered in this assessment to ensure that the scenarios are bankable. The concentrating solar power technologies selected are parabolic trough, Fresnel and solar tower while the biomass systems include grate, fluidised bed and gasification with producer gas use in a boiler.A case study approach based on the annual availability of 100,000. t of wood biomass is taken to compare the different plant configurations but the results are transferable to other locations when updating site and cost conditions. Results show that solar tower-biomass hybrids reach the highest net cycle efficiency, 32.9%, but that Fresnel-biomass hybrids have the lowest specific investment, AU$ 4.5. m/MWe. The investment difference between the 17 scenarios is with up to 31% significant. Based on the annual electricity generation CSP-biomass hybrids have an up to 69% lower investment compared to standalone concentrating solar power systems. The scenario with the best technical performance, being solar tower and gasification, is at this point in time not necessarily the best commercial choice, being Fresnel and fluidised bed, as the lower Fresnel investment outweighs the additional electricity generation potential solar towers offer. However, other scenarios with different benefits rank closely. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Peterseim J.H.,University of Technology, Sydney | Tadros A.,Laing oRourke | Hellwig U.,ERK Eckrohrkessel GmbH | White S.,University of Technology, Sydney
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2014

It is well understood that the cost of concentrating solar power (CSP) will need to decrease quickly to ensure competitiveness with photovoltaic (PV) systems and other forms of power generation. Research and development on CSP plant components is crucial in order to reduce costs but is typically time consuming. New CSP plant concepts combining proven technologies with CSP represent another option that can be implemented quickly. This paper investigates the use of several biomass materials to externally superheat steam in conventional parabolic trough plants. Currently, parabolic trough plants are easiest to finance and external steam superheating can overcome the lower efficiencies compared to other CSP technologies. Seven scenarios, each air and water cooled, with steam parameters ranging from 380 C at 100 bar to 540 C at 130 bar have been modeled, and the results presented here are based on a 50 MWe plant with 7.5 h molten salt thermal storage. Our results show that the peak solar to electricity net efficiency increases up to 10.5% while the specific investment can decrease immediately from AU$8.2m/MWe to AU$6.3m/MWe, a 23.5% reduction. That is significant considering the expected 17-40% CSP cost reduction targets by the end of this decade. The modeling shows that even major fuel and water price changes are significantly less relevant than small changes in the agreed electricity purchase price. The technical, economic and environmental analysis reveals that external superheating with biomass can provide significant benefits, is able to use a variety of fuels and despite a limited global market, could immediately enable the implementation of several hundred MWe of CSP capacity at lower cost. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Peterseim J.H.,University of Technology, Sydney | White S.,University of Technology, Sydney | Tadros A.,Laing ORourke Australia | Hellwig U.,ERK Eckrohrkessel GmbH
Renewable Energy | Year: 2014

This paper categorises different concentrating solar power (CSP) hybrid options into light, medium and strong hybrids and discusses the combination of CSP with coal, natural gas, biomass and waste materials, geothermal, and wind. The degree of hybridisation depends on the interconnection of the plant components. Light hybrids create only limited synergies, such as the joint use of a substation, and their cost reduction potential is therefore limited, while strong hybrids share major plant components, such as steam turbine and condenser, and can better match their energy output with electricity pricing.The hybridisation options for CSP with different energy sources are plentiful ranging from feedwater heating, reheat steam, live steam to steam superheating with some options better suited for a specific energy source combination than others. The synergies created in hybrid plants can lead to cost reductions of 50%, better energy dispatchability as well as revenue maximisation.Several CSP hybrid studies exist for coal, natural gas and biomass but these are often investigating a specific hybrid concept. This paper considers several options at a higher level and also includes geothermal and wind which is novel.While the paper focuses on Australia the approach taken and concepts discussed are transferable to other countries. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Peterseim J.H.,University of Technology, Sydney | Hellwig U.,ERK Eckrohrkessel GmbH | Endrullat K.,ERK Eckrohrkessel GmbH
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Power Division (Publication) POWER | Year: 2013

Improving power plant performance, availability and operational costs is crucial to remain competitive in today's competitive energy market. The boiler is a key component to achieve these objectives, particularly so when using challenging fuels, such as municipal solid waste or exhaust gases with high dust contents. This paper describes an innovative boiler design that has been used for the first time in an Energy from Waste plant in Bamberg, Germany. The new boiler design disregards the traditional heating surface arrangement and instead uses tube bundles arranged in parallel to the gas flow, which provides several advantages, such as reduced fouling. The paper describes the Bamberg project (boiler design and project highlights) and first operational results after 30,500h of operation. Additionally, the paper investigates further options to reduce fouling through the use of dimpled tubes, especially the ip tube ® technology. The technology is presented as well as first test results of such tubes in the Energy from Waste plant Rosenheim, Germany. The paper concludes with further applications for the parallel flow boiler design, such as cement kilns, to outline future markets Copyright © 2013 by ASME.


Peterseim J.H.,University of Technology, Sydney | Tadros A.,Aurecon Australia | Hellwig U.,ERK Eckrohrkessel GmbH | White S.,University of Technology, Sydney
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Power Division (Publication) POWER | Year: 2013

In Australia both natural gas and an excellent solar irradiance are abundant energy sources and its combination is one option to implement concentrating solar power (CSP) systems in Australia's traditionally low cost electricity market. The recently introduced carbon pricing mechanism in Australia is likely to steer investment towards combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plants. This will also lead to further plants being built in high solar irradiance areas where CSP could provide valuable peak capacity. Hybridisation would enable more competitive power generation than standalone CSP systems as hybrid plants share equipment, such as steam turbine and condenser, therewith lowering the specific investment. This paper investigates the novel hybridization of CCGT and solar tower systems to increase the efficiency of integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC). Currently, all ISCC plants use parabolic trough systems with thermal oil as this technology is most mature. However, increases in plant efficiency, simpler solar tower integration as well as further synergies of solar tower ISCC systems, such as joint use of tower as CCGT stack, are likely to enhance the economic viability of new ISCC plants. In addition to a technical concept description this paper outlines the ideal sites for ISCC plants in Australia and presents a 200MWe ISCC case study with 3h molten salt thermal storage for the conversion of the Port Hedland open cycle gas turbine (OCGT) facility in Western Australia into a solar tower ISCC plant. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.


Peterseim J.H.,University of Technology, Sydney | Tadros A.,Laing ORourke Australia | White S.,University of Technology, Sydney | Hellwig U.,ERK Eckrohrkessel GmbH | And 2 more authors.
Energy Procedia | Year: 2013

Concentrating solar power (CSP)-biomass hybrids plants are becoming increasingly interesting as a low cost option to provide dispatchable renewable energy since the first reference plant commenced operation late 2012, 22.5MWe Termosolar Borges in Spain. The development of such project is a complex task with not only one but two energy sources required to make the project successful. The availability of several studies but only one reference plant worldwide is proof of that. This paper investigates the hybridisation of a biomass power plant with a molten salt solar tower system. The benefit of this combination is a high cycle efficiency as both the steam generators can provide steam at 525°C and 120bar to the steam turbine. A case study approach is used to provide technical, economic and environmental benefits of a 30MWe CSP-biomass plant with 3h thermal storage in Griffith, New South Wales. At this site such a plant could provide annually 160, 300MWh of electricity with an annual average electricity price of AU$155/MWh. Compared to a standalone CSP plant with 15h of thermal storage the hybrid plant investment is 43% lower, providing a possibility to fast-track CSP implementation in countries where CSP is struggling to enter the market due to low wholesale electricity prices, such as Australia. © 2013 The Authors.


Beyer M.,ERK Eckrohrkessel GmbH | Kolling A.,ERK Eckrohrkessel GmbH | Kohn S.,ERK Eckrohrkessel GmbH | Nowitzki M.,ERK Eckrohrkessel GmbH | And 3 more authors.
ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE) | Year: 2013

In this paper we report on the investigations of 48 tubular and 3 planar meso-, micro- And nano-scaled surface structured devices for boilers and heat exchangers made of steel, copper and brass. The tubular structured components are object of protective right in terms of industrial power tube (ip tube). Hexagonal types with sinusoidal structures and roughness values in the order of bts/dHyd = 0.3 used for heating of a fluid by a fluid proved to have a heat transmittance of k = 1737 W . m-2 . K -1 and to be increased by 47 % compared to the corresponding value of a smooth tube k = 1182 W . m-2 . K-1. Dodecahedronal closed structured tubes with smaller roughness of bts/dHyd = 0.1 used for falling film evaporation showed a heat transmittance of k = 5130 W . m-2 . K-1 corresponding to an increase by 19 % depending on the Reynolds number Re between 7100 and 17600. Types of micro-structured tubes with 1000000 straight pins per square centimeter investigated in boiling experiments with Solkatherm SDS 36 at 0.7 bar appeared to have a decreased temperature excursion by 21 %, while there is a 25 % greater boiling resistance at low heat fluxes of about 25 W. Steam condensation experiments were performed using copper tubes fabricated both with meso-scaled structures and 1000 straight pins per square centimeter. At a subcooling temperature of ΔT = 60 K at 1.1 bar the heat flux density proved to be increased by 340 % to a value of k = 420 kW . m-2 . K-1 compared to the conventional component. In addition the formation of droplets with a diameter of 0.003 m was observed. The numerical calculation of the local heat transfer coefficient at the interior wall resulted in a value of αi = 11.4 kW . m-2 . K-1 . Micro-scaled tubular devices with 3.3 million crossed pins per square centimeter made of copper were investigated with respect to heterogeneous catalysis of carbon monoxide under oxidizing conditions at 478 K and 1 bar. The achieved yield measured by CO conversion rate was equal to the unit value with a delay time of 17000 s due to an initial oxygen layer at the surface. Prototypic air cooled hot gas coolers were developed, constructed and evaluated, configurated with steel tubes and a small number of conical structures with a roughness of bt s/dHyd = 0.01 - 0.03. By experiments using a biomass gasification test facility the heat transmittance of one cooler model proved to be increased by 22 % to a value of k = 11 W . m-2 . K-1. The corresponding pressure loss was so small that the effectivity of the applied measures to enhance heat transfer had a value of about 10 %. Moreover the formation of deposits on the side of the raw gas was found to be suppressed by 40 % to a fouling rate of 1.1 Mas.-% of the initial freight. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.


Zhang W.,University of Nottingham | Liu H.,University of Nottingham | Ul Hai I.,University of Nottingham | Neubauer Y.,TU Berlin | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies | Year: 2012

In general, the raw product gas of biomass gasification contains a range of minor species and contaminants, including particles, tar, alkali metals, chlorine, nitrogen compounds and sulphur compounds. This study reviews the recent developments in product gas cleaning technologies for these species and summarizes the findings of the research project 'Mop fan and electrofilter: an innovative approach for cleaning product gases from biomass gasification' which was recently carried out by the authors. The results of the project showed that combination of mop fan and electrofilter (ESP) has great potential in removing fine particles, tars and chemical contaminants in the product gas. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


Peterseim J.H.,University of Technology, Sydney | White S.,University of Technology, Sydney | Tadros A.,Aurecon Australia Pty Ltd. | Hellwig U.,ERK Eckrohrkessel GmbH
Renewable Energy | Year: 2013

This assessment aims to identify the most suitable concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies to hybridize with Rankine cycle power plants using conventional fuels, such as gas and coal, as well as non-conventional fuels, namely biomass and waste materials. The results derive from quantitative data, such as literature, industry information and own calculations, as well as qualitative data from an expert workshop. To incorporate the variety of technology criteria, quantitative and qualitative data the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used as the multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) tool. Only CSP technologies able to directly or indirectly generate steam are compared in regards to feasibility, risk, environmental impact and Levelised Cost of Electricity (LCOE). Different sub-criteria are chosen to consider the most relevant aspects. The study focuses on the suitability of CSP technologies for hybridisation and results obtained are reality checked by comparison with plants already being built/under construction. The results of this assessment are time dependant and may change with new CSP technologies maturing and prices decreasing in the future.Key findings of this assessment show that Fresnel systems seem to be the best technology for feedwater preheating, cold reheat steam and <450 °C steam boost applications. Parabolic troughs using thermal oil rank second for all CSP integration scenarios with steam temperatures <380 °C. Generally, for steam temperatures above 450 °C the solar towers with direct steam generation score higher than solar towers using molten salt and the big dish technology. At and above 580 °C the big dish is the only alternative to directly provide high pressure steam.In addition to a general CSP technology selection for hybridisation the framework of this study could be used to identify the most suitable CSP technology for a specific CSP hybrid project but this requires detailed information for direct normal irradiance, climate conditions, space constraints etc to provide reliable results. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


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Trademark
ERK Eckrohrkessel GmbH | Date: 2016-05-18

Structural pipes, namely, pipes predominantly of metal with applications of plastic, and not for building, of glass with buckled variants. Boilers; hot water boilers; evaporators; furnaces for steam boilers, hot water boilers and evaporators; water conditioning installations; parts and spare parts for the aforesaid goods; shaped parts of metal, namely, hot and cold formed and cast customised components for steam boilers, hot water boilers and evaporators; pipes of metal and plastic, and not for building, of glass for use in (heating) boiler installations. Scientific and technological services and related research; design and project planning, including development, for designing steam and hot water boilers, and subaggregates and fittings; engineering, namely, planning, product development and management in connection with structural pipes, namely, pipes of metal and plastic, and not for building, of glass with buckled variants, pipes of metal and plastic, for and not for building, of glass for use in (heating) boiler installations, steam boilers, hot water boilers, evaporators, furnaces for steam boilers, hot water boilers and evaporators, water treatment installations, parts and spare parts for the aforesaid goods, shaped parts of metal, namely, hot and cold formed and cast customised components for steam boilers, hot water boilers and evaporators; development of energy concepts, technical planning of assembly services.

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