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Liss D.T.,Northwestern University | Petit-Homme A.,Northwestern University | Feinglass J.,Northwestern University | Buchanan D.R.,Northwestern University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Community Health | Year: 2013

Annual fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) has the potential to reduce colorectal cancer mortality, but in practice it is challenging to complete FOBT every year. Repeat FOBT adherence may be especially low in community health center (CHC) settings, where many patients face barriers to annual FOBT completion. We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis to investigate adherence to annual FOBT in an urban CHC network that serves a predominantly Spanish-speaking, uninsured adult patient population. This study used data from the two-year period between January 2010 and December 2011, and included adults aged 50-74 who completed a screening FOBT with a negative result during the first 6 months of 2010. We examined whether each patient completed a second FOBT between 9 and 18 months after the initial negative FOBT, and tested whether repeat FOBT adherence was associated with patient characteristics or the number of clinic visits after the initial negative FOBT. Only 69 of 281 included patients completed repeat FOBT (24.6 % adherence), and none of 62 patients (0 %) with 0 clinic visits completed repeat FOBT. We detected no significant differences in adherence by age, sex, preferred language, insurance status, or number of chronic conditions. In multivariable regression, the adjusted relative risk of repeat FOBT was 1.66 (95 % CI 1.09-2.54; p = 0.02) among patients with 3 or more clinic visits (referent: patients with 1-2 visits). The observed low rate of adherence greatly diminishes the effectiveness of FOBT in reducing CRC mortality. Findings demonstrate the need for systems-based interventions that increase adherence without requiring face-to-face encounters. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Talen M.R.,Erie Family Health Center | Valeras A.B.,Concord Hospital Family Health Center
Integrated Behavioral Health in Primary Care: Evaluating the Evidence, Identifying the Essentials | Year: 2013

Contributed by experts who've developed integrative healthcare initiatives with strengths in the areas of policy and principles, organizational systems, or clinical practice. These contributors will illustrate the concepts and describe the nuts and bolts of their integration initiatives. In the conclusion of each section, the editors will construct a template to systematically evaluate these essential elements. This template will organize the information to help stakeholders compare and contrast the strengths, resources, limitations and challenges of how each model meets the vision of integrative healthcare. In the concluding section the information in the preceding sections connects to provide a coherent synopsis of the common themes and practices, from the macro to micro levels of care, which foster successful integration of the medical and psychosocial systems. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

Zhang L.,Hubei University | Gui X.-E.,Hubei University | Teter C.,Erie Family Health Center | Zhong H.,Mother and Child Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2014

Background: Combined immunization with hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) plus hepatitis B vaccine (HB vaccine) can effectively prevent perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV). With the universal administration of HB vaccine, anti-HBs conferred by HB vaccine can be found increasingly in pregnant women, and maternal anti-HBs can be passed through the placenta. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of hepatitis B immunization on preventing mother-to-infant transmission of HBV and on the immune response of infants towards HB vaccine. Method: From 2008 to 2013, a prospective study was conducted in 15 centers in China. HBsAg-positive pregnant women and their infants aged 8-12 months who completed immunoprophylaxis were enrolled in the study and tested for HBV markers (HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg, anti-HBe and anti-HBc). Antepartum administration of HBIG to HBsAg-positive women was based on individual preference. HBsAg-negative pregnant women and their infants of 7-24 months old who received HB vaccines series were enrolled and tests of their HBV markers were performed. Results: 1202 HBsAg-positive mothers and their infants aged 8-12 months were studied and 40 infants were found to be HBsAg positive with the immunoprophylaxis failure rate of 3.3%. Infants with immunoprophylaxis failure were all born to HBeAg-positive mothers of HBV-DNA ≥6log10copies/ml. Among infants of HBeAg-positive mothers, immunoprophylaxis failure rate in vaccine plus HBIG group, 7.9% (29/367), was significantly lower than the vaccine-only group, 16.9% (11/65), p=0.021; there was no significant difference in the immunoprophylaxis failure rate whether or not antepartum HBIG was given to the pregnant woman, 10.3% (10/97) vs 9.0% (30/335), p=0.685. Anti-HBs positive rate was 56.3% (3883/6899) among HBsAg-negative pregnant women and anti-HBs positive rate was 94.2% in cord blood of anti-HBs-positive mothers. After completing the HB vaccine series, anti-HBs positive rate among infants with maternal anti-HBs titers of <10IU/L, 10-500IU/L and ≥500IU/L was 90.3% (168/186), 90.5% (219/242) and 80.2% (89/111) respectively, p=0.011. Median titers of anti-HBs (IU/L) among infants in the three groups was 344.2, 231.9 and 161.1 respectively, p=0.020. Conclusions: HBIG plus HB vaccine can effectively prevent mother-to-infant transmission of HBV, but no HBV breakthrough infection was observed in infants born to HBeAg-negative mothers who received HB vaccine with or without HBIG after birth. Antepartum injection of HBIG has no effect on preventing HBV mother-to-infant transmission. High maternal titer of anti-HBs can transplacentally impair immune response of infants towards HB vaccine. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Lurslurchachai L.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Krauskopf K.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Roy A.,Erie Family Health Center | Halm E.A.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Respiratory Journal | Year: 2014

Introduction: Inhaled medications, critical for asthma treatment, are self-administered through metered dose inhalers (MDI). Asthma self-management hinges on adherence to these medications and to proper MDI technique. Objective: To assess predictors of proper MDI technique, and MDI technique as a tool to identify patients with low adherence to inhaled medications. Methods: Prospective cohort of asthmatics from clinics in New York, NY and New Brunswick, NJ. MDI technique was assessed using a standardized checklist. Adherence to inhaled asthma controller medication was evaluated with the Medication Adherence Report Scale. Predictors of MDI technique were evaluated using regression analyses. The distribution of number of MDI technique steps missed was compared in adherent vs. non-adherent asthmatics. Results: Overall, 326 patients were included (55% Hispanic, 27% Black). In adjusted analyses, age<55 years was significantly associated with MDI technique (P=0.03). Overall, 12%, 34%, 40% of asthmatics missed 5-6, 3-4, or 1-2 MDI steps; 16% received a perfect MDI technique score. Adherence rates were 20%, 39%, 48%, and 62% among those who missed 5-6, 3-4, 1-2, or none of the steps in the MDI technique checklist (P<0.001). Conclusion: Poor MDI technique is common among inner-city patients with asthma and is associated with poor adherence to controller medications. Older patients with asthma are at higher risk of improper MDI technique. Assessment of MDI technique may be a simple clinical aid to identify patients with low adherence to controller medications. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Steglitz J.,Northwestern University | Sommers M.,Erie Family Health Center | Talen M.R.,Erie Family Health Center | Thornton L.K.,University of Newcastle | Spring B.,Northwestern University
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVE: Primary care clinicians are well-positioned to intervene in the obesity epidemic. We studied whether implementation of an obesity intake protocol and electronic health record (EHR) form to guide behavior modification would facilitate identification and management of adult obesity in a Federally Qualified Health Center serving low-income, Hispanic patients.MATERIALS AND METHODS: In three studies, we examined clinician and patient outcomes before and after the addition of the weight management protocol and form. In the Clinician Study, 12 clinicians self-reported obesity management practices. In the Population Study, BMI and order data from 5000 patients and all 40 clinicians in the practice were extracted from the EHR preintervention and postintervention. In the Exposure Study, EHR-documented outcomes for a sub-sample of 46 patients actually exposed to the obesity management form were compared to matched controls.RESULTS: Clinicians reported that the intake protocol and form increased their performance of obesity-related assessments and their confidence in managing obesity. However, no improvement in obesity management practices or patient weight-loss was evident in EHR records for the overall clinic population. Further analysis revealed that only 55 patients were exposed to the form. Exposed patients were twice as likely to receive weight-loss counseling following the intervention, as compared to before, and more likely than matched controls. However, their obesity outcomes did not differ.CONCLUSION: Results suggest that an obesity intake protocol and EHR-based weight management form may facilitate clinician weight-loss counseling among those exposed to the form. Significant implementation barriers can limit exposure, however, and need to be addressed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

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