Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety | Year: 2010
The microbiological safety of cabbage, carrots, celery, and onions/scallions as well as deli (mayonnaise-based) salads that contain these items is the subject of this review. Between 2000 and 2007, the number of outbreaks in the United States associated with these raw produce items ranged from 6 (celery) to 18 (carrots). For cases with confirmed etiologies involving these 4 types of produce as well as coleslaw, chicken, seafood, and other vegetable-based salads, more than 50% of the outbreaks were attributed to viral agents. In contrast, Salmonella spp. served as the major etiological agent in outbreaks associated with potato salad. Surveys conducted on these produce items within the United States and other developed countries found either an absence or infrequent contamination with foodborne pathogens. Despite this low prevalence, experimental studies have demonstrated the potential for preharvest contamination, and this event is more likely to occur when exposure is close to harvest. Postharvest contamination of these produce items has been documented in several cases with water, equipment, and incoming product serving as the principal cross-contamination agent. Survival of contaminated product during subsequent storage is dependent on the storage temperature, produce type, and presence of mayonnaise. Chemical interventions may be relied on to reduce cross-contamination during produce washing operations but are limited in their ability to inactivate pathogens on the produce surface. In contrast, irradiation at dosages (1.0 kGy) approved for use in the United States is an effective treatment for killing pathogenic bacteria in fresh-cut cabbage, carrots, and celery. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists ®.
Janda J.M.,Erickson |
Abbott S.L.,Microbial Diseases Laboratory
Critical Reviews in Microbiology | Year: 2014
The genus Shewanella is currently composed of more than 50 species that inhabit a range of marine environs and ecosystems. Several members of this genus, including S. oneidensis, have been identified that could potentially play key roles in environmental processes such as bioremediation of toxic elements and heavy metals and serving as microbial fuel cells. In contrast to this beneficial role, shewanellae are increasingly being implicated as human pathogens in persons exposed through occupational or recreational activities to marine niches containing shewanellae. Documented illnesses linked to Shewanella include skin and soft tissue infections, bacteremia, and otitis media. At present, it is unclear exactly how many Shewanella species are truly bona fide human pathogens. Recent advances in the taxonomy and phylogenetic relatedness of members of this genus, however, support the concept that most human infections are caused by a single species, S. algae. Some phylogenetic data further suggest that some current members of the genus are not true Shewanella species sensu stricto. The current review summarizes our present knowledge of the distribution, epidemiology, disease spectrum, and identification of microbial species focusing on a clinical perspective. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved.
Around 85 million years ago, North America was halved by 1,000 mi of ocean, which connected the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Sea. The continent was divided into two landmasses: Laramidia and Appalachia. Appalachia stretched from around Alabama up into Canada. Traversing Appalachia was Eotrachodon orientalis, a new duck-billed dinosaur described by researchers in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Found in marine sediment by a team of amateur fossil hunters in Alabama’s Montgomery County, the skeleton is roughly 40 to 45% complete, consisting of a complete skull, backbones, a partial hip bone, and some bones from the dinosaur’s limbs. According to the researchers, the dinosaur most likely grew to between 20 and 30 ft, and had a scaly exterior. It walked on its hind legs, save for when it was grazing for plants. Based on its teeth, scientists believe the dinosaur ground its food up like cows or horses. But unlike other Hadrosaurids, this species had a unique feature. “This thing had a big ugly nose,” said Gregory Erickson, a professor of biological science at Florida State Univ. After the fossil hunters found the bones, a team from the McWane Science Center finished the excavation. A subsequent study was performed by science center staff, Erickson, and former Florida State Univ. doctoral student Albert Prieto-Marquez. Erickson determined the dinosaur’s adult length by studying the bone samples in his Florida State Univ. lab. Apparently no growth lines appeared in the samples. But highly vascularized bones proved the dinosaur was in a state of rapid growth when it perished. “For roughly 100 million years, the dinosaurs were not able to cross the barrier,” said Jun Ebersole, the McWane Science Center’s director. “The discovery of Eotrachodon suggests that duck-billed dinosaurs originated in Appalachia and dispersed to other parts of the world at some point after the seaway lowered, opening a land corridor to western North America.” The dinosaur’s name means “dawn rough tooth from the east.” “This is a really important animal in telling us how they came to be and how they spread all over the world,” said Erickson.
Erickson | Date: 2011-08-08
News Article | April 18, 2016
Security at U.S. ports could strengthen with a new proof-of-concept technique invented by a consortium of scientists. Researchers from the Georgia Institute of Technology, University of Pennsylvania, and University of Michigan created a proof-of-concept new imaging method for detecting weapons-grade uranium and plutonium hiding in cargo containers. Anna Erickson, an assistant professor at Georgia Tech’s School of Mechanical Engineering, said in a statement: “Once heavy shielding is paced around weapons-grade uranium or plutonium, detecting them passively using radiation detectors surrounding a 40-foot-cargo container is very difficult.” This new technique has an ion accelerator at its core. It uses this component to emit heavy hydrogen isotypes called deuterons, which then hones in on a boron target resulting in a bevy of neutrons and high-energy photons. Next, the photons can be used to create an image of the materials as they scan the container. Both photons and neutrons stimulate the nuclear substance enabling detection of gamma rays and neutrons. “When the neutrons interact with fissile materials, they initiate a fission reaction, generating both prompt and delayed neutrons that can be detected despite the shielding. The neutrons do not prompt a time-delayed reaction with non-fissionable materials such as lead, providing an indicator that materials of potential use for development of nuclear weapons are inside the shielding,” according to Georgia Tech’s announcement. Previous iterations of this detection process relied on X-rays to explore suspicious cargo, but it struggled to bypass heavy shielding and there was a risk that the radiation would harm the innards of container. By contrast, Erickson’s creation reduces the energy amount that could potentially enter the cargo because of photons and electrons’ discrete energy. The study is published in the journal Scientific Reports. Establish your company as a technology leader! For more than 50 years, the R&D 100 Awards have showcased new products of technological significance. You can join this exclusive community! Learn more.