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La Defense, France

Bertrand Y.,Electricite de France | Lauzevis P.,ERDF Inc
IET Conference Publications | Year: 2013

Environmental considerations demand alternatives for the current mineral oils used in many electrical equipment, such as transformers. Because of their excellent biodegradability and non-toxicity, relative to petroleum derived products, the use of the vegetable oils is on the rise as insulating and heat transfer liquid in electrical devices. In addition such natural esters have a favourable lower flammability, but their viscosity and low temperature behaviour is not well suited to applications in cold climate and/or with natural cooling system. That is why a new insulating composition, based on modified vegetable oil, has been developed to present very similar properties to those of the standard insulating mineral oils and to meet the specific needs of current distribution transformers. This article presents the formulation of this low-viscosity ester fluid, and it reports the results of the tests carried out to assess its performance in laboratory and real conditions. Source

Mouhamad M.,Electricite de France | Lauzevis P.,ERDF Inc
IET Conference Publications | Year: 2013

This paper deals with EDF Research and Development work for ERDF needs in terms of energy efficiency, focused on Amorphous Metal Distribution Transformers (AMDT). The first part is dedicated to evaluate the life-cycle assessment (LCA) of amorphous technology compared to silicon steel technology. It is shown LCA of amorphous units, from raw materials till the recycling, is the most ecofriendly one compared to traditional technology. The second topic is about inrush currents. These currents, measured after re-energization, reach very higher values for amorphous technology than those of conventional technology. The reason for this difference is explained by analyzing magnetic properties of the core and the moment when the transformer is switched in. Source

Razazian K.,Maxim Integrated | Niktash A.,Maxim Integrated | Loginov V.,Maxim Integrated | Leclare J.,Maxim Integrated | And 2 more authors.
ISPLC 2013 - 2013 IEEE 17th International Symposium on Power Line Communications and Its Applications, Proceedings | Year: 2013

G3-PLC is a power line communication standard using OFDM technology for data communication defining both physical and data link layers. The data link layer is derived from IEEE 802.15.4 and Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Network (6LoWPAN) standards. 6LowPAN Ad hoc Distance-vector protocol (LOAD) is used as an efficient routing protocol over varying network topologies and link conditions. Since LOAD was originally developed for wireless networks, several unique enhancements were added to tailor it to power line communications. The enhanced LOAD protocol handles typical issues such as asymmetrical links and ghost nodes. In addition, link repair functionalities are provided and control traffic is reduced. On the other hand, this paper describes how fair channel access is granted to all nodes, providing a sound medium access mechanism which is crucial for a power line communication network. In a second experimental part of the paper, some pressing issues are replicated within a test platform to explore the routing enhancements in a controlled environment. Finally, this paper focuses on the results obtained for a cluster of 132 nodes operating on an actual low voltage grid in Ste Maure de Touraine in the Loire Valley, France. This cluster is part of a 2000 node Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) field trial led by the French Distribution Network Operator (DNO) ERDF. For the first time, results showing enhanced LOAD routing protocol performance within a power line communication AMI deployment are presented. LOAD performs as expected, providing connectivity to all meters installed in a typical residential area. © 2013 IEEE. Source

Mallet P.,ERDF Inc | Granstrom P.-O.,EDSO | Hallberg P.,Vattenfall | Lorenz G.,Eurelectric | Mandatova P.,Eurelectric
IEEE Power and Energy Magazine | Year: 2014

The electricity distribution business in Europe is made up of more than 2,400 companies that serve 260 million connected customers, operate 10 million km of power lines, distribute 2,700 TWh a year, and directly employ more than 240,000 people. This is a very diverse business, varying in the number and size of its operational areas, the number of their customers, and the characteristics of the various networks, as well as their ownership structures. Despite this diversity, European distribution system operators (DSOs) generally provide a very high level of reliability and quality of supply to their customers. © 2013 IEEE. Source

Huet O.,Electricite de France | Guillaume C.,Electricite de France | Gaudin C.,ERDF Inc
IEEE Power and Energy Magazine | Year: 2010

SIGNIFICANT PORTIONS OF EUROPEAN POWER NETWORKS were developed in the 1960s and 1970s and are now approaching the end of their expected lifetimes (see Figure 1). Utilities thus have to anticipate the investment waves to come. So-called smart grid technologies will hopefully bring opportunities: new tools, the ability to collect information about aging assets, and new communications technologies that will shape the future of networks by incorporating safer and more resilient asset management (AM). At the same time, the smart grid will place networks under greater stress, with increased variability of flow of energy due to renewable energy sources, new loads such as electric vehicles that will increase peak demand, and so on. Care needs to be taken to provide sustainable AM. © 2006 IEEE. Source

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