Erbeyli Poultry Research Institute

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Bozkurt M.,Erbeyli Poultry Research Institute | Hippenstiel F.,University of Bonn | Abdel-Wareth A.A.A.,SouthValley University | Kehraus S.,University of Bonn | And 2 more authors.
European Poultry Science | Year: 2014

Numerous in vitro studies have already confirmed the antibacterial actions of phytogenicfeed additives. Consequently, several in vivo studies were performed to confirm their beneficial effects. Effects on egg traits, such as egg composition, shell thickness or Haugh unit rating, were reported only rarely. Performance variables that were dominantly observed include feed intake, feed conversion ratio, egg production rate, and egg weight. Most studies concluded slight positive effects or trends, however significant results were rare. Since there are almost unlimited possibilities concerning dosage and combinations of herbs and EO, there is still more research needed. A lack of standardization of in vivo experiments leads to difficulties when it comes to comparing results. Generally, it can be stated that herbs and their respective EO have the potential to be considered as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters in laying hen production. Nevertheless, further research in this area under more standardized condition is needed to determine the optimal dietary inclusion level, the exact mode of action of the examined active plant compounds as well as the optimal production performance and disease resistance in laying hens. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.


Bozkurt M.,Erbeyli Poultry Research Institute | Kucukyilmaz I.K.,Eskiehir Osmangazi University
World's Poultry Science Journal | Year: 2015

Boron (B) is a trace element that plays an important role in mineral and hormonal metabolism, cell membrane function, and enzymatic reactions. The current evidence supports the hypothesis that boron has an important biological role that affects the mineral metabolism of both humans and animals by interacting with Ca, Mg, P and cholecalciferol (vitamin D), all of which are important in bone metabolism. This implies that B can play a vital role in bone development and normal growth. However, the use of B occasionally results in apparently inconsistent responses in terms of performance in broiler chickens and layer hens. Although some studies have reported the effectiveness of B, no clear mode of action has been proposed. There are many potential reasons for the inconsistent results of B in eliciting beneficial responses. Available data obtained from relevant studies suggest that there are several concurrent factors involved. Of these, nutritional variables predominate. The purpose of this paper is to review the available studies examining the nutritional role of B on the production performance in broiler chickens and laying hens. © World's Poultry Science Association 2015.


Bozkurt M.,Erbeyli Poultry Research Institute | Kucukyilmaz K.,Eskiehir Osmangazi University
World's Poultry Science Journal | Year: 2015

Nutrients such as minerals and vitamin D have clear roles in skeletal metabolism. Boron (B) has been examined as a possible essential nutrient in the metabolism and utilisation of several micro nutrients and hence could have an influence on bone mineral density and eggshell quality. However, there have been few direct studies to examine the dietary response to B in chicken and layer hen models, although there is evidence that both compositional and functional properties of bone are affected by dietary boron status in other model animals and humans. Bone integrity, skeletal problems in chickens and eggshell quality in laying hens are important economic, welfare and health issues for the poultry industry. Therefore, better understanding of certain role of B on mineral availability in chickens and layer hens is important to enhance productivity and improve animal welfare. The following review examines the published data relating to these aspects of B in poultry feed. © World's Poultry Science Association 2015.


Kucukyilmaz K.,Eskiehir Osmangazi University | Erkek R.,Ege University | Bozkurt M.,Erbeyli Poultry Research Institute
British Poultry Science | Year: 2014

1. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effects of dietary calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and supplemental boron (B) (0, 75, and 150 mg/kg) on the performance, egg quality, bone strength, and mineral constituents in bone, serum and faeces.2. A reduction by 18% in the dietary Ca-P concentration from the recommended levels for the hen strain reduced (P < 0.01) faecal excretion of ash, Ca and P concentrations, and shear force with stress of the tibia in association with decreased feed intake, whereas improved albumen height and Haugh unit values in the egg.3. Supplemental B significantly decreased the feed consumption, egg weight and final body weight in hens, as well as the albumen height, but had no effect on either the biomechanical characteristics of bones or the mineral profile of the bones and serum. However, there was a significant increase in the egg production rate and a reduction in the damaged and shell-less egg ratio, and in the feed conversion rate in hens fed adequate Ca-P with 150 mg/kg B compared to those of the unsupplemented controls.4. The amount of B that accumulated in the bones and serum was correlated with the amount of B consumed. B increased the faecal excretion of ash, Ca and B. In general, dietary variables had no effect on mineral composition of serum and tibia.5. The magnitude of the response to dietary B was much more pronounced in hens fed a diet deficient in Ca-P with 75 mg/kg B; these hens exhibited a production performance and an egg quality comparable to those given adequate Ca-P with no added B.6. The data presented in this study describing the measured bone properties did not corroborate the hypothesis that B is a trace element playing an important role in mineral metabolism and bone strength through an interaction with Ca, P and Mg. © 2014, © 2014 British Poultry Science Ltd.


Bozkurt M.,Erbeyli Poultry Research Institute | Selek N.,Adnan Menderes University | Kucukyilmaz K.,Erbeyli Poultry Research Institute | Eren H.,Adnan Menderes University | And 3 more authors.
British Poultry Science | Year: 2012

1. A herbal extract containing a blend of three essential oils, derived from oregano, laurel leaf and lavender, was investigated as a feed additive alternative to the conventional anticoccidial sodium monensin.2. Broilers were infected with a mixture of Eimeria species or left uninfected.Both infected and uninfected broilers were provided with diets containing either herbal extract (HEX), monensin (MON) or without these supplements (CON). The HEX group had 50 mg herbal extract/kg diet and the MON group 100 mg monensin/kg diet.3. All of the uninfected broilers exhibited higher body weight gain and better feed conversion when compared with their infected counterparts at d 28 and 42 of age. Both HEX and MON supplements caused significant improvements in performance in the infected broilers, but failed to have any effect on uninfected broilers.4. Faecal oocyst output measured daily by sampling excreta, and expressed on a per bird basis, was lower in the HEX and MON groups than in the CON group. However, the herbal extract was not as effective as monensin in reducing oocyst excretion. Coccidial infection caused a significant increase in total intestinal length and caecal weight, but the dietary treatments did not influence these measurements.5. These results indicate that providing a herbal extract in the diet was not as effective as monensin in protecting broilers exposed to a coccidial challenge. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Bozkurt M.,Erbeyli Poultry Research Institute | Bozkurt M.,Celal Bayar University | Kucukyilmaz K.,Celal Bayar University | Cath A.U.,Celal Bayar University | And 3 more authors.
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2012

Three levels of boron (0, 30, 60 ppm) were supplemented in practical corn-soybean based starter and grower diets, containing either adequate or inadequate Ca or P. A total of 1, 800, 1-day-old sexed broiler chicks were assigned to six dietary treatments and fed with the experimental diets for 42 days. Boron improved the overall feed conversion ratio, but increased body weight only at 21 days of age (p<0.01). Boron decreased feed intake in the case of feeding on a diet deficient in Ca and P, and tended to increase feed intake when birds received a diet adequate in Ca and P, signifying significant boron by Ca-P interaction (p<0.01). Mortality was not influenced by boron (p>0.05). Dietary Ca and P deprivation reduced body weight and feed consumption significantly, but did not influence the feed conversion ratio and mortality (p>0.05). Serum Ca level, ALP and ALT activities were not influenced either by dietary Ca and P deficiency or boron supplementation. Serum P content increased with respect to boron at 30 ppm. Bone breakage strength was not affected by dietary variables. Tibia ash, Ca and P were increased in response to the supplementation diet with 30 ppm boron, whereas 60 ppm showed no effect in most cases. Accordingly, the dietary boron supplementation of 30 ppm significantly decreased fecal Ca and P excretion, while there was a numerical decline in the 60 ppm boron as compared to the 0 ppm boron group. Data presented herein indicated that boron, either at the 30 ppm or 60 ppm supplementation level, was effective in conversion of feed to body weight, whereas only boron at 30 ppm contributed to the mineralization of bone thereby augmenting more Ca and P while excreting less through faeces.


Bozkurt M.,Erbeyli Poultry Research Institute | Kucukyilmaz K.,Erbeyli Poultry Research Institute | Catli A.U.,Erbeyli Poultry Research Institute | Cinar M.,Erbeyli Poultry Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Archiv fur Geflugelkunde | Year: 2012

This study compares the performance-enhancing effects of adding an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP), a commercial organic acid blend (OAB), a commercial, herbal, essential oil mixture (EOM) and an OAB - EOM combination to feeding regimens of broiler chicks. The corn and soybeanbased basal diet was supplemented with three doses of one of the following additives: AGP (Avilamycin, 10 mg/kg diet), OAB (0.9, 1.8, 2.7 g/kg diet, respectively), EOM (12, 24, 36 mg/kg diet, respectively) and OAB - EOM combination. Diets were fed as mash to 3,300 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross-308) that were randomly assigned to 11 groups, each with six identical subgroups. Birds were studied until they were 42 days old. At 21 and 42 days of age, the body weights of broilers in all treatment groups were significantly heavier than the body weights (BWs) of broilers in the control group (P < 0.01). A similar disparity in body weight gain (BWG) was observed between 22 and 42 days (P < 0.05). The OAB, EOM and OAB - EOM supplements promoted significantly growth when incorporated into the diets of broiler starters and growers, even at low levels. Likewise, broilers that received the diet supplemented with AGP exhibited a much better growth rate and feed conversion ratio (FCR) than broilers that received the unsupplemented control diet (P < 0.05). Amongst the treatment groups, there were significant differences in feed conversion ratio (FCR) between 0 to 21, 22 to 42 and 0 to 42 day periods (P < 0.05). Throughout the experimental period, dietary supplementation with AGP, EOM and the OAB - EOM mixture significantly improved FCR, compared to the control treatment. The experimental treatments had no significant effect on the feed intake or mortality of broilers during the 42-day experimental period (P > 0.05). Gradually increasing the doses of OAB, EOM and the OAB - EOM mixture led to insignificant improvements in broiler performance, compared with their lower supplementation rates. In conclusion, introducing EOM into the diets of broiler diets either alone or in combination with OAB significantly improved body weight and feed efficiency of broilers without affecting mortality. Similar results were observed with AGP. Our results raise the prospect of replacing AGP with novel alternatives, such as OABs and EOMs. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.


Kucukyilmaz K.,Erbeyli Poultry Research Institute | Bozkurt M.,Erbeyli Poultry Research Institute | Herken E.N.,Pamukkale University | Cinar M.,Erbeyli Poultry Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2012

White (Lohmann LSL) and Brown (ATAK-S) laying hens, were reared under organic and conventional cage rearing systems, and the effects of the rearing system on performance parameters, egg production, egg characteristics, and immune response were investigated. For this purpose, a total of 832 laying hens of two commercial hybrids, i.e., 416 white (Lohmann LSL) and 416 Brown (ATAK-S) layers, were used. The experiment lasted between 23 and 70 wk of age. In this study, the white layers yielded more eggs as compared to the brown layers in both organic and conventional production systems. Egg weight exhibited a similar pattern to that of laying performance. However, the total hen-housed egg number for the white birds in the organic system was fewer than that of white birds in the conventional cage facility; conversely, a contradictory tendency was observed for the brown birds. Livability of the white layers in the organic system was remarkably lower (14%) than that of the brown line, whereas the white line survived better (3.42%) than their brown counterparts in conventional cages. The feed conversion ratio of the white hens was markedly inferior in the organic system as compared to that of the white hens in the conventional system, whereas relatively lower deterioration was reported in brown layers when reared in an organic system. The organic production system increased egg albumen height and the Haugh unit in eggs of the brown layers. The yolk color score of organic eggs was lower than that of conventional eggs for both brown and white hens. The egg yolk ratio of eggs from white layers was found to be higher in organic eggs as compared to those obtained in the conventional system. All organic eggs had heavier shells than those produced in the conventional system. Eggs from brown layers had more protein content than eggs from white layers. Neither housing systems nor genotype influenced egg yolk cholesterol concentration. When compared to conventional eggs, n-3 fatty acid content was lower in organic eggs, and the n-6:n-3 ratio was higher in organic eggs. In conclusion, two hen genotypes showed different responses in terms of performance and egg quality to two different rearing systems. A commercial white strain produced more eggs with higher egg quality as compared to a native brown strain. The brown strain was found to have adapted well to organic production conditions when survival and total egg number was taken into consideration.


Kucukyilmaz K.,Erbeyli Poultry Research Institute | Bozkurt M.,Erbeyli Poultry Research Institute | Catli A.U.,Erbeyli Poultry Research Institute | Herken E.N.,Pamukkale University | And 2 more authors.
South African Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2012

The major quality characteristics of breast and thigh meat, including chemical composition, fatty acid composition, cholesterol content and colour of slow-growing broilers (Hubbard Red-JA), reared under either organic or conventional rearing systems, and fast-growing broilers (Ross-308) grown under the conventional procedure, were investigated in this comparative study. Slaughter age was 81 days and 42 days for slow- and fast-growing birds, respectively. A lower protein, but higher fat content was measured in the thigh meat of slow-growing broilers reared both in the organic and conventional systems, compared with conventionally reared fast growers. In both systems the breast meat of fast-growing birds had a higher moisture content than those of the slow-growing birds. The organic system promoted ash retention in breast meat compared with conventional rearing procedures. The fatty acid profile of thigh and breast meat showed different responses to broiler rearing systems. Both thigh and breast meat of conventionally reared slow-growing birds contained higher cholestorel levels. Breast and thigh meat yielded from conventionally reared fast-growing birds had a markedly higher red appearance, but a lower yellow colour, than those of slow growers. The organic system increased the yellowness of the meat. In conclusion, the organic rearing procedure provided no added benefit to chicken meat quality than current conventional applications, except in yellowness. Meat produced from birds in the organic system did not meet consumer expectations of presenting a lower n-3 but a higher n-6/n-3 ratio in thigh meat.


Kuukyilmaz K.,Erbeyli Poultry Research Institute | Bozkurt M.,Erbeyli Poultry Research Institute | Yamaner C.,Erbeyli Poultry Research Institute | Inar M.,Erbeyli Poultry Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

In this study, the effect on mineral content of eggs from organic and conventional-housing systems was investigated. For this, random samples of 12 eggs were collected in both housing systems. Egg shells and edible portions were analysed for ash, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn and Cu contents. The P and Zn contents of the edible egg portion were lower in the organic eggs than in conventional eggs. Mg content of the eggshell was higher in organic eggs while Zn content showed a marked decrease. As far as Ca, Fe and Cu values were concerned, these did not differ between the eggs from organic and conventional systems. The results showed considerable differences in mineral content between the eggs from the hens reared in organic and conventional systems. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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