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Bozkurt M.,Erbeyli Poultry Research Institute | Kucukyilmaz K.,Eskiehir Osmangazi University
World's Poultry Science Journal

Nutrients such as minerals and vitamin D have clear roles in skeletal metabolism. Boron (B) has been examined as a possible essential nutrient in the metabolism and utilisation of several micro nutrients and hence could have an influence on bone mineral density and eggshell quality. However, there have been few direct studies to examine the dietary response to B in chicken and layer hen models, although there is evidence that both compositional and functional properties of bone are affected by dietary boron status in other model animals and humans. Bone integrity, skeletal problems in chickens and eggshell quality in laying hens are important economic, welfare and health issues for the poultry industry. Therefore, better understanding of certain role of B on mineral availability in chickens and layer hens is important to enhance productivity and improve animal welfare. The following review examines the published data relating to these aspects of B in poultry feed. © World's Poultry Science Association 2015. Source

Kucukyilmaz K.,Eskiehir Osmangazi University | Erkek R.,Ege University | Bozkurt M.,Erbeyli Poultry Research Institute
British Poultry Science

1. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effects of dietary calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and supplemental boron (B) (0, 75, and 150 mg/kg) on the performance, egg quality, bone strength, and mineral constituents in bone, serum and faeces.2. A reduction by 18% in the dietary Ca-P concentration from the recommended levels for the hen strain reduced (P < 0.01) faecal excretion of ash, Ca and P concentrations, and shear force with stress of the tibia in association with decreased feed intake, whereas improved albumen height and Haugh unit values in the egg.3. Supplemental B significantly decreased the feed consumption, egg weight and final body weight in hens, as well as the albumen height, but had no effect on either the biomechanical characteristics of bones or the mineral profile of the bones and serum. However, there was a significant increase in the egg production rate and a reduction in the damaged and shell-less egg ratio, and in the feed conversion rate in hens fed adequate Ca-P with 150 mg/kg B compared to those of the unsupplemented controls.4. The amount of B that accumulated in the bones and serum was correlated with the amount of B consumed. B increased the faecal excretion of ash, Ca and B. In general, dietary variables had no effect on mineral composition of serum and tibia.5. The magnitude of the response to dietary B was much more pronounced in hens fed a diet deficient in Ca-P with 75 mg/kg B; these hens exhibited a production performance and an egg quality comparable to those given adequate Ca-P with no added B.6. The data presented in this study describing the measured bone properties did not corroborate the hypothesis that B is a trace element playing an important role in mineral metabolism and bone strength through an interaction with Ca, P and Mg. © 2014, © 2014 British Poultry Science Ltd. Source

Bozkurt M.,Erbeyli Poultry Research Institute | Bozkurt M.,Celal Bayar University | Kucukyilmaz K.,Celal Bayar University | Cath A.U.,Celal Bayar University | And 3 more authors.
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences

Three levels of boron (0, 30, 60 ppm) were supplemented in practical corn-soybean based starter and grower diets, containing either adequate or inadequate Ca or P. A total of 1, 800, 1-day-old sexed broiler chicks were assigned to six dietary treatments and fed with the experimental diets for 42 days. Boron improved the overall feed conversion ratio, but increased body weight only at 21 days of age (p<0.01). Boron decreased feed intake in the case of feeding on a diet deficient in Ca and P, and tended to increase feed intake when birds received a diet adequate in Ca and P, signifying significant boron by Ca-P interaction (p<0.01). Mortality was not influenced by boron (p>0.05). Dietary Ca and P deprivation reduced body weight and feed consumption significantly, but did not influence the feed conversion ratio and mortality (p>0.05). Serum Ca level, ALP and ALT activities were not influenced either by dietary Ca and P deficiency or boron supplementation. Serum P content increased with respect to boron at 30 ppm. Bone breakage strength was not affected by dietary variables. Tibia ash, Ca and P were increased in response to the supplementation diet with 30 ppm boron, whereas 60 ppm showed no effect in most cases. Accordingly, the dietary boron supplementation of 30 ppm significantly decreased fecal Ca and P excretion, while there was a numerical decline in the 60 ppm boron as compared to the 0 ppm boron group. Data presented herein indicated that boron, either at the 30 ppm or 60 ppm supplementation level, was effective in conversion of feed to body weight, whereas only boron at 30 ppm contributed to the mineralization of bone thereby augmenting more Ca and P while excreting less through faeces. Source

Bozkurt M.,Erbeyli Poultry Research Institute | Kucukyilmaz I.K.,Eskiehir Osmangazi University
World's Poultry Science Journal

Boron (B) is a trace element that plays an important role in mineral and hormonal metabolism, cell membrane function, and enzymatic reactions. The current evidence supports the hypothesis that boron has an important biological role that affects the mineral metabolism of both humans and animals by interacting with Ca, Mg, P and cholecalciferol (vitamin D), all of which are important in bone metabolism. This implies that B can play a vital role in bone development and normal growth. However, the use of B occasionally results in apparently inconsistent responses in terms of performance in broiler chickens and layer hens. Although some studies have reported the effectiveness of B, no clear mode of action has been proposed. There are many potential reasons for the inconsistent results of B in eliciting beneficial responses. Available data obtained from relevant studies suggest that there are several concurrent factors involved. Of these, nutritional variables predominate. The purpose of this paper is to review the available studies examining the nutritional role of B on the production performance in broiler chickens and laying hens. © World's Poultry Science Association 2015. Source

Bozkurt M.,Erbeyli Poultry Research Institute | Hippenstiel F.,University of Bonn | Abdel-Wareth A.A.A.,SouthValley University | Kehraus S.,University of Bonn | And 2 more authors.
European Poultry Science

Numerous in vitro studies have already confirmed the antibacterial actions of phytogenicfeed additives. Consequently, several in vivo studies were performed to confirm their beneficial effects. Effects on egg traits, such as egg composition, shell thickness or Haugh unit rating, were reported only rarely. Performance variables that were dominantly observed include feed intake, feed conversion ratio, egg production rate, and egg weight. Most studies concluded slight positive effects or trends, however significant results were rare. Since there are almost unlimited possibilities concerning dosage and combinations of herbs and EO, there is still more research needed. A lack of standardization of in vivo experiments leads to difficulties when it comes to comparing results. Generally, it can be stated that herbs and their respective EO have the potential to be considered as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters in laying hen production. Nevertheless, further research in this area under more standardized condition is needed to determine the optimal dietary inclusion level, the exact mode of action of the examined active plant compounds as well as the optimal production performance and disease resistance in laying hens. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart. Source

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