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-- Despite living in strong and supportive families for over 20 years, many children exposed to severe early deprivation in Romanian institutions aged 0-3 experience a range of mental health problems in early adulthood. Experiencing severe deprivation and neglect in childhood can have a lasting psychological impact into early adulthood, according to a unique study which has followed the mental health of a group of children adopted from Romanian institutions to UK families in the 1990s. Published in The Lancet, this is the first large-scale study to follow a group of children who were subjected to extreme deprivation into adulthood, tracking how their mental health and cognition has developed as a result. The English and Romanian Adoptees study began shortly after the fall of the communist regime in Romania. Children living in institutions were subjected to extremely poor hygiene, insufficient food, little personalised care and no social or cognitive stimulation. The study, running since 1990, analyses the mental health of 165 children who spent time in Romanian institutions and who were adopted by families in the UK between the ages of two weeks and 43 months. In the UK, they joined socioeconomically advantaged, stable, caring and supportive families. Comparing against 52 children adopted within the UK, the study has followed them throughout their childhood using questionnaires, IQ tests and interviews with the children and their parents to analyse social, emotional and cognitive outcomes at ages 6, 11 and 15. The latest part of the study followed the adoptees to ages 22 to 25 years old. It includes around three-quarters of the original adoptees - 39 UK adoptees, 50 Romanian adoptees who had spent less than six months in an institution as children and 72 who had spent over six months. The researchers found that the amount of time spent in a Romanian institution was an important marker of children's future mental health. Romanian adoptees who had spent less than six months had similar rates of mental health symptoms as UK adoptees. However, adoptees who had spent more time in the institutions had higher rates of social, emotional and cognitive problems throughout their lives. People who had lived in Romanian institutions for more than six months as children had higher rates of social problems including autistic features, difficulties engaging with others, inattention and overactivity which persisted from childhood into adulthood. They were also three to four times more likely to experience emotional problems as adults, and had lower educational attainment and employment rates than the other UK and Romanian adoptees. This all despite living in strong and supportive families for over 20 years. As children, more adoptees who lived in Romanian institutions for over six months had an IQ of less than 80, but this recovered within normal levels (an IQ of 90 or above) by early adulthood, suggesting developmental delays but no permanent impact on general cognitive abilities. Additionally, one in five (21%, 15 children) adoptees who spent over six months in Romanian institutions did not experience any mental health problems throughout their lives. The next steps of the research will involve an in-depth genetic analysis of the most exposed adoptees who did not develop mental health problems to distinguish whether genetic and epigenetic differences contribute to resilience. "Being exposed to very severe conditions in childhood can be associated with lasting and deep-seated social, emotional and cognitive problems, which are complex and vary over time," said lead author Professor Edmund Sonuga-Barke, King's College London, UK, who conducted the follow-up study while at the University of Southampton. "This highlights the importance of assessing patients from deprived backgrounds when providing mental health support and carefully planning care when these patients transfer from child to adult mental health care. Although focussed on children adopted from Romanian institutions in the early 1990s, our findings may also be relevant to large numbers of children who are still exposed to abusive or neglectful conditions around the world." [1] Because the children were different ages when they entered institutions and lived there for different amounts of time, the study could not determine whether there is a window during childhood development when children may be more or less likely to be affected by deprivation. In addition, it cannot control for other early risk factors affecting the child's mental health, such as maternal smoking or substance abuse during pregnancy, but the authors argue that there are unlikely to be significant differences among the two groups of Romanian adoptees. Writing in a linked Comment, Professor Frank Verhulst, Erasmus University Medical Centre, The Netherlands, said: "Whatever the underlying mechanisms, the findings of Sonuga-Barke and colleagues' study elegantly support the rule of the earlier the better for improving the caregiving environment for young children whose basic needs are profoundly violated. This finding is true for millions of children around the world who are exposed to war, terrorism, violence, or mass migration. As a consequence, many young children face trauma, displacement, homelessness, or family disruption." From its beginning the study was funded by the UK Economic and Social Research Council, the UK Medical Research Council, the UK Department of Health, the Jacobs Foundation and the Nuffield Foundation. It was conducted by scientists from the University of Southampton, King's College London, Ruhr University Bochum, The Amy Winehouse Foundation and the Max Planck Institute for Empirical Aesthetics. [1] Quote direct from author and cannot be found in the text of the Article. IF YOU WISH TO PROVIDE A LINK FOR YOUR READERS, PLEASE USE THE FOLLOWING, WHICH WILL GO LIVE AT THE TIME THE EMBARGO LIFTS: http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(17)30045-4/fulltext


News Article | October 26, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

People with Icelandic heritage are more likely to carry a novel rare mutation in the TM2D3 gene, which leads to greater risk for Alzheimer's disease, based on a new study published October 14th, 2016 in PLOS Genetics by Johanna Jakobsdottir of the Icelandic Heart Association, Sven van der Lee of Erasmus University in Rotterdam, and colleagues. Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia, affecting about 30% of adults above the age of 85. While scientists have already identified many common genetic variants that contribute to the disease, rare mutations with significant effects in the population have been more difficult to discover, except in rather isolated families. To find such rare variations, a collaboration of Alzheimer's researchers throughout the U.S. and Europe performed an analysis covering more than 11,000 genes in 1,393 late-onset Alzheimer's disease patients. They identified a variant in the TM2D3 gene that is associated with both a higher risk and earlier age of onset of Alzheimer's disease. Interestingly, the TM2D3 genetic variant is about 10 times more common in Icelanders compared to the European population in general. Nevertheless, the variant remains quite rare and is present in fewer than 1% of the Icelandic population, and the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease in Iceland is comparable to that seen elsewhere in the world. The researchers also performed experiments in a fruit fly model, in which human TM2D3 was substituted for an equivalent fly gene, demonstrating that the discovered variant interferes with the Notch signaling pathway. Other Notch signaling factors have previously been shown to participate in the generation of amyloid plaque brain pathology in Alzheimer's disease. Jakobsdottir, van der Lee and colleagues have identified a rare genetic variant associated with Alzheimer's risk, and propose a possible function to explain its role in the disease. The TM2D3 gene has not previously been linked to Alzheimer's, and thus may have importance for understanding the mechanisms that contribute to the late-onset form of the disease. Johanna adds "We have found a rare variant in the TM2D3 gene that correlates with risk of late-onset Alzheimer's disease and showed that it likely interferes with the Notch signaling pathway, which has relevance for Alzheimer's disease as other Notch signaling factors play a role in amyloid plaque pathology. However, we have not proven causality and further study is needed, including additional experiments in the fly, DNA sequencing to identify additional variants, and RNA sequencing to study effects on gene expression." In your coverage please use this URL to provide access to the freely available article in PLOS Genetics: http://dx. Citation: Jakobsdottir J, van der Lee SJ, Bis JC, Chouraki V, Li-Kroeger D, Yamamoto S, et al. (2016) Rare Functional Variant in TM2D3 is Associated with Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease. PLoS Genet 12(10): e1006327. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1006327 Funding: Infrastructure for the CHARGE Consortium is supported in part by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI, http://www. ) grant HL105756. Funding support for the CHARGE Consortium Exome Chip analyses is provided in part by the NHLBI grant HL120393. Support for centralized calling of the exome chip was provided by Building on GWAS for NHLBI-diseases: the U.S. CHARGE consortium through the National Institutes of Health (NIH, https:/ ) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) (5RC2HL102419). The CHARGE consortium is a founding component of the Alzheimer's Disease Sequencing Project, and receives sequencing and analysis support through the grants from NIH: U01-AG049506, U01-AG049505, and U54-HG003273. AGES study is supported by the National Institute on Aging (NIA, https:/ ) contracts N01-AG-12100 and HHSN271201200022C with contributions from the National Eye Institute (NEI, https:/ ), National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD, https:/ ), NHLBI, the NIA Intramural Research Program, Hjartavernd (the Icelandic Heart Association), and the Althingi (the Icelandic Parliament). JMS was supported by grants from the NIH/NIA (R01-AG033193, R01-AG050631, C06-RR029965), the Alzheimer's Association, the American Federation for Aging Research, Huffington Foundation, Jan and Dan Duncan Neurological Research Institute at Texas Children's Hospital, and a Career Award for Medical Scientists from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund. The work was additionally supported by U54HD083092 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development. SY was supported by the Jan and Dan Duncan Neurological Research Institute at Texas Children's Hospital and the Alzheimer's Association. HJB is a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator and also received support from the Robert and Renee Belfer Family Foundation, the Huffington Foundation, and Target ALS. JS is supported by NIH GMR2556929. Detailed funding information for all studies that contributed to this work are provided in S1 Text Funding section. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


News Article | February 16, 2017
Site: globenewswire.com

HOUSTON, Feb. 16, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- TPC Group today announced the appointment of Bart de Jong as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (CFO) of the Company. In this role, Mr. de Jong will oversee the finance, accounting and investor relations functions, in addition to a renewed corporate development function. A photo accompanying this announcement is available at http://www.globenewswire.com/NewsRoom/AttachmentNg/fb6c1743-3e76-42b4-9c8a-520984f6be5b Mr. de Jong has been working with the Company for the past 10 months on a consulting basis, leading corporate development efforts, including the recent divestiture of our Baytown, Texas nonene and tetramer facility and manufacturing site along with the development of the Company’s current long range plan. Mr. de Jong began his career in auditing with KPMG, then held various accounting and internal audit positions at ExxonMobil. He spent the majority of his career with LyondellBasell and predecessor companies, with a wide range of experiences and responsibilities in strategic planning, finance, corporate development and human resources. During his time at LyondellBasell, Mr. de Jong served as President of a number of divisions, including inorganic chemicals and fuels, as well as leading LyondellBasell’s Americas businesses and operations. Early in his career, he also served as CFO of a startup technology company. “We are very pleased to have someone with the breadth and depth of experience Bart brings to TPC,” said Chairman and CEO, Ed Dineen. “In this broader function of CFO, Bart and his team will play a key role in delivering and accelerating the value creation and debt reduction identified in our long range plan. We are happy we have been able to make this and a series of other organizational moves to enhance value and alignment, while providing new employee development opportunities and lowering our SG&A costs.” “This is an exciting time to join TPC Group, and I’m proud to have the opportunity to help the organization with the execution of a sound long range plan,” said Mr. de Jong. Mr. de Jong has a master of science degree in economics from Erasmus University and is a Certified Public Accountant in The Netherlands. About TPC Group TPC Group is a leading producer of value-added products derived from petrochemical raw materials such as C4 hydrocarbons, and provider of critical infrastructure and logistics services along the Gulf Coast region. The Company sells its products into a wide range of performance, specialty and intermediate segments, including synthetic rubber, fuels, lubricant additives, plastics and surfactants. Headquartered in Houston, Texas, with an operating history of over 70 years, TPC Group has manufacturing facilities in the industrial corridor adjacent to the Houston Ship Channel and Port Neches, Texas, and operates a product terminal in Lake Charles, Louisiana.


News Article | February 16, 2017
Site: globenewswire.com

HOUSTON, Feb. 16, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- TPC Group today announced the appointment of Bart de Jong as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (CFO) of the Company. In this role, Mr. de Jong will oversee the finance, accounting and investor relations functions, in addition to a renewed corporate development function. A photo accompanying this announcement is available at http://www.globenewswire.com/NewsRoom/AttachmentNg/fb6c1743-3e76-42b4-9c8a-520984f6be5b Mr. de Jong has been working with the Company for the past 10 months on a consulting basis, leading corporate development efforts, including the recent divestiture of our Baytown, Texas nonene and tetramer facility and manufacturing site along with the development of the Company’s current long range plan. Mr. de Jong began his career in auditing with KPMG, then held various accounting and internal audit positions at ExxonMobil. He spent the majority of his career with LyondellBasell and predecessor companies, with a wide range of experiences and responsibilities in strategic planning, finance, corporate development and human resources. During his time at LyondellBasell, Mr. de Jong served as President of a number of divisions, including inorganic chemicals and fuels, as well as leading LyondellBasell’s Americas businesses and operations. Early in his career, he also served as CFO of a startup technology company. “We are very pleased to have someone with the breadth and depth of experience Bart brings to TPC,” said Chairman and CEO, Ed Dineen. “In this broader function of CFO, Bart and his team will play a key role in delivering and accelerating the value creation and debt reduction identified in our long range plan. We are happy we have been able to make this and a series of other organizational moves to enhance value and alignment, while providing new employee development opportunities and lowering our SG&A costs.” “This is an exciting time to join TPC Group, and I’m proud to have the opportunity to help the organization with the execution of a sound long range plan,” said Mr. de Jong. Mr. de Jong has a master of science degree in economics from Erasmus University and is a Certified Public Accountant in The Netherlands. About TPC Group TPC Group is a leading producer of value-added products derived from petrochemical raw materials such as C4 hydrocarbons, and provider of critical infrastructure and logistics services along the Gulf Coast region. The Company sells its products into a wide range of performance, specialty and intermediate segments, including synthetic rubber, fuels, lubricant additives, plastics and surfactants. Headquartered in Houston, Texas, with an operating history of over 70 years, TPC Group has manufacturing facilities in the industrial corridor adjacent to the Houston Ship Channel and Port Neches, Texas, and operates a product terminal in Lake Charles, Louisiana.


News Article | February 16, 2017
Site: globenewswire.com

HOUSTON, Feb. 16, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- TPC Group today announced the appointment of Bart de Jong as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (CFO) of the Company. In this role, Mr. de Jong will oversee the finance, accounting and investor relations functions, in addition to a renewed corporate development function. A photo accompanying this announcement is available at http://www.globenewswire.com/NewsRoom/AttachmentNg/fb6c1743-3e76-42b4-9c8a-520984f6be5b Mr. de Jong has been working with the Company for the past 10 months on a consulting basis, leading corporate development efforts, including the recent divestiture of our Baytown, Texas nonene and tetramer facility and manufacturing site along with the development of the Company’s current long range plan. Mr. de Jong began his career in auditing with KPMG, then held various accounting and internal audit positions at ExxonMobil. He spent the majority of his career with LyondellBasell and predecessor companies, with a wide range of experiences and responsibilities in strategic planning, finance, corporate development and human resources. During his time at LyondellBasell, Mr. de Jong served as President of a number of divisions, including inorganic chemicals and fuels, as well as leading LyondellBasell’s Americas businesses and operations. Early in his career, he also served as CFO of a startup technology company. “We are very pleased to have someone with the breadth and depth of experience Bart brings to TPC,” said Chairman and CEO, Ed Dineen. “In this broader function of CFO, Bart and his team will play a key role in delivering and accelerating the value creation and debt reduction identified in our long range plan. We are happy we have been able to make this and a series of other organizational moves to enhance value and alignment, while providing new employee development opportunities and lowering our SG&A costs.” “This is an exciting time to join TPC Group, and I’m proud to have the opportunity to help the organization with the execution of a sound long range plan,” said Mr. de Jong. Mr. de Jong has a master of science degree in economics from Erasmus University and is a Certified Public Accountant in The Netherlands. About TPC Group TPC Group is a leading producer of value-added products derived from petrochemical raw materials such as C4 hydrocarbons, and provider of critical infrastructure and logistics services along the Gulf Coast region. The Company sells its products into a wide range of performance, specialty and intermediate segments, including synthetic rubber, fuels, lubricant additives, plastics and surfactants. Headquartered in Houston, Texas, with an operating history of over 70 years, TPC Group has manufacturing facilities in the industrial corridor adjacent to the Houston Ship Channel and Port Neches, Texas, and operates a product terminal in Lake Charles, Louisiana.


News Article | February 16, 2017
Site: globenewswire.com

HOUSTON, Feb. 16, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- TPC Group today announced the appointment of Bart de Jong as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (CFO) of the Company. In this role, Mr. de Jong will oversee the finance, accounting and investor relations functions, in addition to a renewed corporate development function. A photo accompanying this announcement is available at http://www.globenewswire.com/NewsRoom/AttachmentNg/fb6c1743-3e76-42b4-9c8a-520984f6be5b Mr. de Jong has been working with the Company for the past 10 months on a consulting basis, leading corporate development efforts, including the recent divestiture of our Baytown, Texas nonene and tetramer facility and manufacturing site along with the development of the Company’s current long range plan. Mr. de Jong began his career in auditing with KPMG, then held various accounting and internal audit positions at ExxonMobil. He spent the majority of his career with LyondellBasell and predecessor companies, with a wide range of experiences and responsibilities in strategic planning, finance, corporate development and human resources. During his time at LyondellBasell, Mr. de Jong served as President of a number of divisions, including inorganic chemicals and fuels, as well as leading LyondellBasell’s Americas businesses and operations. Early in his career, he also served as CFO of a startup technology company. “We are very pleased to have someone with the breadth and depth of experience Bart brings to TPC,” said Chairman and CEO, Ed Dineen. “In this broader function of CFO, Bart and his team will play a key role in delivering and accelerating the value creation and debt reduction identified in our long range plan. We are happy we have been able to make this and a series of other organizational moves to enhance value and alignment, while providing new employee development opportunities and lowering our SG&A costs.” “This is an exciting time to join TPC Group, and I’m proud to have the opportunity to help the organization with the execution of a sound long range plan,” said Mr. de Jong. Mr. de Jong has a master of science degree in economics from Erasmus University and is a Certified Public Accountant in The Netherlands. About TPC Group TPC Group is a leading producer of value-added products derived from petrochemical raw materials such as C4 hydrocarbons, and provider of critical infrastructure and logistics services along the Gulf Coast region. The Company sells its products into a wide range of performance, specialty and intermediate segments, including synthetic rubber, fuels, lubricant additives, plastics and surfactants. Headquartered in Houston, Texas, with an operating history of over 70 years, TPC Group has manufacturing facilities in the industrial corridor adjacent to the Houston Ship Channel and Port Neches, Texas, and operates a product terminal in Lake Charles, Louisiana.


News Article | February 16, 2017
Site: globenewswire.com

HOUSTON, Feb. 16, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- TPC Group today announced the appointment of Bart de Jong as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (CFO) of the Company. In this role, Mr. de Jong will oversee the finance, accounting and investor relations functions, in addition to a renewed corporate development function. A photo accompanying this announcement is available at http://www.globenewswire.com/NewsRoom/AttachmentNg/fb6c1743-3e76-42b4-9c8a-520984f6be5b Mr. de Jong has been working with the Company for the past 10 months on a consulting basis, leading corporate development efforts, including the recent divestiture of our Baytown, Texas nonene and tetramer facility and manufacturing site along with the development of the Company’s current long range plan. Mr. de Jong began his career in auditing with KPMG, then held various accounting and internal audit positions at ExxonMobil. He spent the majority of his career with LyondellBasell and predecessor companies, with a wide range of experiences and responsibilities in strategic planning, finance, corporate development and human resources. During his time at LyondellBasell, Mr. de Jong served as President of a number of divisions, including inorganic chemicals and fuels, as well as leading LyondellBasell’s Americas businesses and operations. Early in his career, he also served as CFO of a startup technology company. “We are very pleased to have someone with the breadth and depth of experience Bart brings to TPC,” said Chairman and CEO, Ed Dineen. “In this broader function of CFO, Bart and his team will play a key role in delivering and accelerating the value creation and debt reduction identified in our long range plan. We are happy we have been able to make this and a series of other organizational moves to enhance value and alignment, while providing new employee development opportunities and lowering our SG&A costs.” “This is an exciting time to join TPC Group, and I’m proud to have the opportunity to help the organization with the execution of a sound long range plan,” said Mr. de Jong. Mr. de Jong has a master of science degree in economics from Erasmus University and is a Certified Public Accountant in The Netherlands. About TPC Group TPC Group is a leading producer of value-added products derived from petrochemical raw materials such as C4 hydrocarbons, and provider of critical infrastructure and logistics services along the Gulf Coast region. The Company sells its products into a wide range of performance, specialty and intermediate segments, including synthetic rubber, fuels, lubricant additives, plastics and surfactants. Headquartered in Houston, Texas, with an operating history of over 70 years, TPC Group has manufacturing facilities in the industrial corridor adjacent to the Houston Ship Channel and Port Neches, Texas, and operates a product terminal in Lake Charles, Louisiana.


News Article | December 27, 2016
Site: www.24-7pressrelease.com

BROOKLYN, NY, December 27, 2016-- Wassila Hachchi is a former politician and military who is now an author and a social entrepreneur. She created the platform Dialogue Digital because she believes that the power of dialogue is necessary for effecting social change.According to Wassila, "We have to keep going forward. I think we did make some progress. If you look back, we now have social media. The internet is nothing but an instrument. You can use it for the force of good, and you can use it for bad. It's basically a mirror if we complain about the internet like saying it's been hi-jacked by the culture of hate, it means we as humans are not using it for something positive. We are in charge. We have to use the instrument in a way that it serves us."In her book "Listen. Think. Speak." she shared her journey from her life in politics to being a social entrepreneur. Know more about what Dialogue Digital is and how Wassila came up with this powerful communication tool."In the 21st century we need to create conscious conversations that make a difference in the world. Wassila has created the answers for that. Powerful dialogue changes communities, families, and relationships. This book should be in every business and every family home." Lisa Nichols, CEO Motivating the Masses"We need to embrace the power of technology to our communication, and we need to learn how to use it effectively. We need to know how to continue to have dialogue with one another not just on the surface but a heart to heart interaction. I love Wassila's openness to talk about and help drive better communication to the world." Steve Kidd, host Thriving Entrepreneur Radio Show - Hear the whole interview at WeHelpYouTHRIVE.com/radio"Listen. Think. Speak" is available on Amazon at http://www.amzn.com/B01NCI87ID Wassila Hachchi was born in Rotterdam, Netherlands on January 6th, 1980 as the daughter of first-generation Moroccan immigrants.She studied at the Erasmus University in Rotterdam and graduated with a Master's degree in Business Administration in Business Administration with a focus in Strategic Management. With her diploma in her pocket, she chose to work at the Royal Dutch Navy as a military officer.After four years Wassila took off her uniform and worked at the Ministry of Economic Affairs. In January 2008 she received the award Young Official of the Year 2007, for outstanding performance in public service. The Ministry of Defense offered her a new position in early 2009, not long after that she made the switch to politics.On June 17, 2010, she was sworn in as Member of Parliament (MP). After almost six years as a Dutch MP, she resigned to support Hillary Clinton in her run for President of the United States where she gained valuable insight into American politics and the 2016 presidential election.During her time as MP, she started Dialogue Digital - a tech-enabled platform to make an impact on the world. Dialogue Digital is a safe online space for intelligent conversations to drive social change. In 2015 she shared her story at TEDx Amsterdam Women and led a successful crowd funding campaign. As a social entrepreneur, Wassila is one of today's disruptors and tomorrow's brightest stars.


News Article | March 2, 2017
Site: www.techtimes.com

The positive effects of exercise outweigh the impacts of obesity on heart disease among the elderly, a new study revealed. Experts from the Netherlands discovered that physical activity may effectively reduce the risk of stroke or cardiovascular diseases regardless of the person's body mass index. The findings emphasize that physical activity is crucial in the heart health of middle-aged adults and the elderly, researchers said. Led by Dr. Klodian Dhana, researchers from Erasmus University in Rotterdam followed 5,344 people who were 55 years old to 97 years old. The group collected the participants' physical activity, BMI, alcohol use, smoking habits, diet, family history of heart attack, and education. Study participants were separated into three weight categories: normal, obese, and overweight. They were then divided by high or low level of physical activity. Dhana and his colleagues found that 16 percent of participants experienced a cardiovascular event during the 15-year study. Physical activity was related to a decrease in risk for developing heart disease, regardless of the person's BMI. There was also no link between heart disease and BMI alone. What's more, participants who were obese or overweight did not have a higher risk of developing heart disease compared to participants with normal weight. Instead, those who were overweight or obese with low levels of exercise and physical activity had a 1.3 percent chance of developing cardiovascular disease compared to those who had high levels of exercise. "In the overall population, we found that physical activity was protective for cardiovascular risk," said Dhana. However, Dhana said the research does not refute the risk linked to obesity in the general population, but it suggests that BMI may not be the most effective way to measure adiposity among the elderly. Dhana said obesity has been associated with a higher risk for cardiovascular disease. What the team now recommends is for patients to lose weight. In the elderly, weight loss is slightly different. Unintentional weight loss has been linked to muscle loss and death, said Dhana. Being obese or overweight can contribute to the negative effects through the adipose tissue, which speeds up the atherosclerotic process and ups chances of heart disease. Performing sufficient amounts of exercise, however, can decrease the effects of obesity on the heart by reducing plaque on blood vessels, as well as the oxygen demands of the person's heart. Dhana suggests biking, walking, and housework are all helpful ways to keep your physical activity high. About 150 minutes of moderate to intense physical activity per week is highly recommended. Details of the new study are issued in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.


Sophia Antipolis, March 1, 2017: The benefits of physical activity may outweigh the impact of overweight and obesity on cardiovascular disease in middle-aged and elderly people, according to research published today in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.1 The observational study was conducted in more than 5,000 people aged 55 years and older who were followed-up for 15 years. "Overweight and obesity is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and it is recommended to lose weight," said author Dr Klodian Dhana, a postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. "But in the elderly this is slightly different because weight loss, especially unintentional, is associated with muscle loss and death." "Physical activity is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease regardless of age," he continued. "We investigated the combined impact of body mass index (BMI) and physical activity on cardiovascular disease in the middle age to elderly population." The study included 5,344 individuals aged 55 to 97 years of age (average 70 years) who participated in the Rotterdam Study and were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. Information about BMI, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, diet, education, and family history of premature heart attack was collected during the enrolment period in 1997 to 2001. Participants were categorised by BMI: normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2) and obese (>30 kg/m2); and physical activity (low/high) which was below and above the median in the study population. The group was followed from 1997 to 2012 for cardiovascular events (heart attack and stroke). During the 15 year follow-up, 16% of participants had a cardiovascular event. When analysed alone, physical activity was associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease regardless of BMI category. There was no association between BMI alone and cardiovascular disease. "In the overall population we found that physical activity was protective for cardiovascular risk," said Dr Dhana. "Overweight and obese participants were not at increased cardiovascular risk compared to those of normal weight. We do not refute the risk associated with obesity in the general population even though we did not find it in this older group. BMI may not be the best way to measure adiposity risk in the elderly." The researchers analysed the joint effect of physical activity and BMI. Compared to normal weight people with high physical activity levels (the ideal), overweight or obese individuals with high levels of physical activity were not at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but overweight or obese people with low levels of physical activity had 1.33 and 1.35 times higher risk for developing cardiovascular disease, respectively. "Our results show that physical activity plays a crucial role in the health of middle age to elderly people," said Dr Dhana. "Those who are overweight and obese without adequate physical activity are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease." Overweight and obesity exert harmful effects through adipose tissue which accelerates the atherosclerotic process and increases cardiovascular risk. Physical activity lowers the harmful effects of atherosclerosis by reducing the stabilisation of plaques on blood vessels and reducing the heart's oxygen demand. "People who engage in high levels of physical activity are protected from the harmful effects of adipose tissue on cardiovascular disease," said Dr Dhana. "This may be why we found that the beneficial impact of physical activity on cardiovascular disease outweighs the negative impact of BMI." The Rotterdam Study was an active population, with the 'low' and 'high' groups doing two and four hours of daily activity. This included biking and walking to the shops and housework. Dr Dhana said the important point was that the study compared the two groups and found that more activity was better for health. "Any physical activity is positive for cardiovascular health and in elderly people of all weights walking, biking and housework are good ways to keep moving," said Dr Dhana. "European guidelines recommend 150 minutes a week of moderate intensity physical activity to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease."2

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