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Rotterdam, Netherlands

Gorson K.C.,Tufts University | Van Schaik I.N.,University of Amsterdam | Merkies I.S.J.,Maastricht University | Lewis R.A.,Wayne State University | And 11 more authors.
Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System | Year: 2010

Defining long-term outcomes in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) has been complicated by varying definitions of treatment response and differing scales measuring impairment or disability. An expert panel was convened to devise a CIDP Disease Activity Status (CDAS) and to classify long-term outcome by applying it to 106 patients with a consensus diagnosis of CIDP. Sixty of these cases were graded blindly by three independent reviewers to assess inter-rater reliability. The mean duration of follow-up was 6.4 years (range, 3 months-23 years). Eleven percent of patients were classified as cured (stable examination and off treatment for ≥5 years), 20% were in remission (stable and off treatment for <5 years), 44% had stable active disease but required ongoing therapy for at least 1 year, 7% were improving after recent initiation of therapy, and 18% had unstable active disease (treatment naïve or treatment refractory). Excellent inter-rater reliability was observed (kappa scores: 0.93-0.97; p < 0.0001). The CDAS is considered a simple and reproducible tool to classify patients with CIDP according to disease activity and treatment status that can be applied easily in practice and potentially to select patients for clinical trials. © 2010 Peripheral Nerve Society.

van Alphen B.,Erasmus Medical College | Winkelman B.H.J.,Erasmus Medical College | Frens M.A.,Erasmus Medical College
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2010

PURPOSE. To study three-dimensional optokinetic eye movements of wild-type C57BL/6J mice, the most commonly used mouse in oculomotor physiology. Optokinetic eye movements are reflexive eye movements that use visual feedback to minimize image motion across the retina. These gaze-stabilizing reflexes are a prominent model system for studying motor control and learning. They are three dimensional and consist of a horizontal, vertical, and torsional component. METHODS. Eye movements were evoked by sinusoidally rotating a virtual sphere of equally spaced dots at six frequencies (0.1-1 Hz), with a fixed amplitude of 5°. Markers were applied to the mouse eye and video oculography was used to record its movements in three dimensions. In addition, marker tracking was compared with conventional pupil tracking of horizontal optokinetic eye movements. RESULTS. Gains recorded with marker and pupil tracking are not significantly different. Optokinetic eye movements in mice are equally well developed in all directions and have a uniform input- output relation for all stimuli, including stimuli that evoke purely torsional eye movements, with gains close to unity and minimal phase differences. CONCLUSIONS. Optokinetic eye movements of C57Bl6 mice largely compensate for image motion over the retina, regardless of stimulus orientation. All responses are frequency-velocity dependent: gains decrease and phase lags increase with increasing stimulus frequency. Mice show strong torsional responses, with high gains at low stimulus frequency. © Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.

Puiman P.,Erasmus Medical College | Puiman P.,Childrens Nutrition Research Center | Stoll B.,Childrens Nutrition Research Center | Molbak L.,Technical University of Denmark | And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology | Year: 2013

We examined whether changes in the gut microbiota induced by clinically relevant interventions would impact the bioavailability of dietary amino acids in neonates. We tested the hypothesis that modulation of the gut microbiota in neonatal pigs receiving no treatment (control), intravenously administered antibiotics, or probiotics affects whole body nitrogen and amino acid turnover. We quantified whole body urea kinetics, threonine fluxes, and threonine disposal into protein, oxidation, and tissue protein synthesis with stable isotope techniques. Compared with controls, antibiotics reduced the number and diversity of bacterial species in the distal small intestine (SI) and colon. Antibiotics decreased plasma urea concentrations via decreased urea synthesis. Antibiotics elevated threonine plasma concentrations and turnover, as well as whole body protein synthesis and proteolysis. Antibiotics decreased protein synthesis rate in the proximal SI and liver but did not affect the distal SI, colon, or muscle. Probiotics induced a bifidogenic microbiota and decreased plasma urea concentrations but did not affect whole body threonine or protein metabolism. Probiotics decreased protein synthesis in the proximal SI but not in other tissues. In conclusion, modulation of the gut micro biota by antibiotics and probiotics reduced hepatic urea genesis and intestinal protein synthesis, but neither altered whole body net threonine balance. These findings suggest that changes in amino acid and nitrogen metabolism resulting from antibiotic- or probiotic-induced shifts in the micro biota are localized to the gut and liver and have limited impact on whole body growth and anabolism in neonatal piglets. © 2013 the American Physiological Society.

Lemmens N.,Erasmus Medical College | van Wamel W.,Erasmus Medical College | Snijders S.,Erasmus Medical College | Lesse A.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | And 3 more authors.
Microbial Pathogenesis | Year: 2011

USA300 Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for the current outbreak of skin abscesses in the United States. Unlike other USA types, USA300 colonizes the rectum at rates higher than the nose. The reason for the difference in colonization site preference may be related to specific adherence or attachment factors contained in the genome of these strains. Additional knowledge in this field may help design novel prophylactic and therapeutic strategies to combat staphylococcal infections. Strains of USA300 MSSA and MRSA colonizing the nose and/or rectum from children with staphylococcal skin abscesses were compared by whole genome array technology to identify bacterial genetic determinants associated with site-specific colonization. Strains isolated from different colonization sites were indistinguishable by genomic content. Site-specific colonization traits were not detected in the colonizing bacteria by this array. Either host characteristics associated with staphylococcal carriage or under represented bacterial genomic constructions need to be examined to determine the etiology of this site-specific colonization. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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