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Rotterdam, Netherlands

Crisan M.,Erasmus MC Stem Cell Institute | Corselli M.,University of California at Los Angeles | Chen W.C.,University of Pittsburgh | Peault B.,University of California at Los Angeles | Peault B.,University of Edinburgh
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine | Year: 2012

Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are currently the best candidate therapeutic cells for regenerative medicine related to osteoarticular, muscular, vascular and inflammatory diseases, although these cells remain heterogeneous and necessitate a better biological characterization. We and others recently described that MSC originate from two types of perivascular cells, namely pericytes and adventitial cells and contain the in situ counterpart of MSC in developing and adult human organs, which can be prospectively purified using well defined cell surface markers. Pericytes encircle endothelial cells of capillaries and microvessels and express the adhesion molecule CD146 and the PDGFRβ, but lack endothelial and haematopoietic markers such as CD34, CD31, vWF (von Willebrand factor), the ligand for Ulex europaeus 1 (UEA1) and CD45 respectively. The proteoglycan NG2 is a pericyte marker exclusively associated with the arterial system. Besides its expression in smooth muscle cells, smooth muscle actin (αSMA) is also detected in subsets of pericytes. Adventitial cells surround the largest vessels and, opposite to pericytes, are not closely associated to endothelial cells. Adventitial cells express CD34 and lack αSMA and all endothelial and haematopoietic cell markers, as for pericytes. Altogether, pericytes and adventitial perivascular cells express in situ and in culture markers of MSC and display capacities to differentiate towards osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic cell lineages. Importantly, adventitial cells can differentiate into pericyte-like cells under inductive conditions in vitro. Altogether, using purified perivascular cells instead of MSC may bring higher benefits to regenerative medicine, including the possibility, for the first time, to use these cells uncultured. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2012 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Bialecka M.,Hubrecht Institute for Developmental Biology and Stem Cell Research | Young T.,Hubrecht Institute for Developmental Biology and Stem Cell Research | Young T.,Singapore Institute of Medical Biology | Sousa Lopes S.C.D.,Leiden University | And 4 more authors.
Developmental Biology | Year: 2012

Cdx gene products regulate the extent of axial elongation from the posterior growth zone. These transcription factors sustain the emergence of trunk and tail tissues by providing a suitable niche in the axial progenitor zone, via regulation of Wnt signaling. Cdx genes are expressed in and along the complete primitive streak including its posterior part wherefrom the extraembryonic mesoderm of the allantois emerges. Cdx genes are required for the full development of the allantois and its derivatives in the placental labyrinth. The mouse germ cell lineage also originates from the proximo-posterior epiblast of the primitive streak, and is established within the extraembryonic mesoderm that generates the allantois. We asked whether the expression of Cdx genes around the newly specified PGCs is necessary for the maintenance and expansion of this population, as it is for the allantois and axial progenitors. We observed a significantly lower number of PGCs in Cdx2null embryos than in controls. We found that Wnt3a loss of function decreases the PGC population to the same extent as Cdx2 inactivation. Moreover, exogenous Wnt3a corrects the lower PGC number in Cdx2null posterior embryonic tissues cultured in vitro. Cdx2 is not expressed in PGCs themselves, and we propose that the expression of Cdx2 in posterior extraembryonic tissues contributes to the proper niche of the germ cell progenitors by stimulating canonical Wnt signaling. Since PGC residence within the posterior growth zone is a mouse-specific feature, our data suggest that mouse PGCs opportunistically became dependent on the axial progenitor niche. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Okada M.,Stem Cell Research Center | Gao X.,Stem Cell Research Center | Crisan M.,McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine | Saparov A.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 4 more authors.
Stem Cells | Year: 2013

Human microvascular pericytes (CD1461/342/452/562) contain multipotent precursors and repair/regenerate defective tissues, notably skeletal muscle. However, their ability to repair the ischemic heart remains unknown. We investigated the therapeutic potential of human pericytes, purified from skeletal muscle, for treating ischemic heart disease and mediating associated repair mechanisms in mice. Echocardiography revealed that pericyte transplantation attenuated left ventricular dilatation and significantly improved cardiac contractility, superior to CD561 myogenic progenitor transplantation, in acutely infarcted mouse hearts. Pericyte treatment substantially reduced myocardial fibrosis and significantly diminished infiltration of host inflammatory cells at the infarct site. Hypoxic pericyte-conditioned medium suppressed murine fibroblast proliferation and inhibited macrophage proliferation in vitro. High expression by pericytes of immunoregulatory molecules, including interleukin-6, leukemia inhibitory factor, cyclooxygenase-2, and heme oxygenase-1, was sustained under hypoxia, except for monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Host angiogenesis was significantly increased. Pericytes supported microvascular structures in vivo and formed capillary-like networks with/ without endothelial cells in three-dimensional cocultures. Under hypoxia, pericytes dramatically increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A, platelet-derived growth factor-b, transforming growth factor-b1 and corresponding receptors while expression of basic fibroblast growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and angiopoietin-1 was repressed. The capacity of pericytes to differentiate into and/or fuse with cardiac cells was revealed by green fluorescence protein labeling, although to a minor extent. In conclusion, intramyocardial transplantation of purified human pericytes promotes functional and structural recovery, attributable to multiple mechanisms involving paracrine effects and cellular interactions. © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

Staal F.J.T.,Leiden University | Baum C.,Hannover Medical School | Cowan C.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Dzierzak E.,Erasmus MC Stem Cell Institute | And 15 more authors.
Leukemia | Year: 2011

The hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) is the prototype organ-regenerating stem cell (SC), and by far the most studied type of SC in the body. Currently, HSC-based therapy is the only routinely used SC therapy; however, advances in the field of embryonic SCs and induced pluripotent SCs may change this situation. Interest into in vitro generation of HSCs, including signals for HSC expansion and differentiation from these more primitive SCs, as well as advances in other organ-specific SCs, in particular the intestine, provide promising new applications for SC therapies. Here, we review the basic principles of different SC systems, and on the basis of the experience with HSC-based SC therapy, provide recommendations for clinical application of emerging SC technologies. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Chen W.C.,University of Pittsburgh | Saparov A.,University of Pittsburgh | Corselli M.,University of California at Los Angeles | Crisan M.,Erasmus MC Stem Cell Institute | And 3 more authors.
Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE | Year: 2014

Since the discovery of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), the native identity and localization of MSCs have been obscured by their retrospective isolation in culture. Recently, using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), we and other researchers prospectively identified and purified three subpopulations of multipotent precursor cells associated with the vasculature of human skeletal muscle. These three cell populations: myogenic endothelial cells (MECs), pericytes (PCs), and adventitial cells (ACs), are localized respectively to the three structural layers of blood vessels: intima, media, and adventitia. All of these human blood-vessel-derived stem cell (hBVSC) populations not only express classic MSC markers but also possess mesodermal developmental potentials similar to typical MSCs. Previously, MECs, PCs, and ACs have been isolated through distinct protocols and subsequently characterized in separate studies. The current isolation protocol, through modifications to the isolation process and adjustments in the selective cell surface markers, allows us to simultaneously purify all three hBVSC subpopulations by FACS from a single human muscle biopsy. This new method will not only streamline the isolation of multiple BVSC subpopulations but also facilitate future clinical applications of hBVSCs for distinct therapeutic purposes.

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