Eras Medical College and Hospital

Lucknow, India

Eras Medical College and Hospital

Lucknow, India
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Bansal C.,Eras Medical College and Hospital | Tiwari V.,CSMMU | Singh U.,CSMMU | Srivastava A.,Eras Medical College and Hospital | Misra J.,Eras Medical College and Hospital
Journal of Cytology | Year: 2011

Background: Cytological examination of effusion fluid is a relatively easy and quick method for the diagnosis of primary or secondary malignancy. Aims: To analyze the cytological significance of cell cannibalism in malignant effusion samples. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of 100 cases of malignant effusion was done. These 100 cases included 50 cases of contiguous, local spread to pleural/ascitic fluid. The remaining 50 cases were of disseminated malignancy. Effusions due to hematolymphoid malignancies were excluded. Smears from these cases were assessed for the presence of cell cannibalism, tumor cell within a tumor cell. Results: The cannibalistic cells were more common in effusions with disseminated malignancy (nine out of 50 cases i.e. 18%) compared with cases of contiguous, local spread (two out of 50 cases i.e. 4%). Chi square test showed this difference to be statistically significant (x2 5.005, P=0.025). The majority of the cases were of carcinoma lung (6/11). Cytomorphologically, histiocytes displaying phagocytosis can simulate tumor cells and need to be distinguished. Conclusions: Presence of cell cannibalism in malignant effusions is more often an indicator of disseminated malignancy with secondaries and higher tumor stage. Furthermore, cannibalism may provide a reliable predictor of progression of tumor from primary to the metastatic site.


Bansal C.,Eras Medical College and Hospital | Handa U.,Government Medical College and Hospital | Mohan H.,Government Medical College and Hospital
Journal of Cytology | Year: 2011

Aim: To delineate and characterize the cytomorphologic features of pilomatrixoma (PMX) helpful in correct diagnosis of the lesion on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Materials and Methods: Archival records of clinical findings, FNAC and histopathological reports of PMX cases were analyzed. Aspirate findings in 14 cases of PMX were correlated with detailed clinical data and subsequent histopathology on excisional biopsy. Different morphological findings were graded semiquantitatively from 0 to 3+. Results: The series showed female preponderance, with head and neck being the commonest site. Majority patients had a single tumor with mean size of 1.6 cm. Out of 14 biopsy proven cases of PMX, cytology findings revealed PMX in 7 cases on the basis of ghost cells, groups of basaloid cells, squamous cells in combination with multinucleated giant cells and calcium deposits in a background of debris. The main reasons for erroneous diagnosis were predominance of one component over the others and non-representative aspirated material. Conclusions: The cytological features of PMX are characteristic and allow a conclusive diagnosis provided the smears are examined keenly bearing in mind the diagnostic traps that can mislead a cytopathologist.


Bansal C.,University of Lucknow | Pujani M.,Hamdard Institute of Medical science and Research | Sharma K.,University of Lucknow | Srivastava A.,Eras Medical College and Hospital | Singh U.,University of Lucknow
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics | Year: 2014

In developing countries, diagnosis of breast carcinoma is still made on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). For the resource-poor settings, FNAC is cheaper, less invasive and can sample different areas of the lesion compared with core needle biopsy. The role of breast FNA is usually limited to just categorize the lesion as benign or malignant. Prognostic information from cytomorphology, conveyed to the clinician depends upon the cytopathologist's way of formatting the report. PubMed-based literature search collated the information from articles describing the architectural and cytological features studied on breast aspiration smears. This review focuses on cytomorphological features and the different grading systems with their strengths, short-comings, and practical applicability. Eight worldwide articles proposing new methods of grading the cytological smears from breast cancers were published between 1980 and 2006. All the grading methods were developed for the most common type of breast cancer, that is, infiltrating duct carcinoma (not otherwise specified) type, and most of the workers used Papanicolaou-stained smears for the purpose of grading. Moreover, if interpreted carefully FNAC smears can convey information on most of the histological features. Hence, in developing countries, the focus should be on extracting the maximum information from cytological smears, so that a more precise «surgical pathology» type diagnosis can be given, instead of merely reporting as benign or malignant. Among all the discussed grading systems, we suggest grading system by Howell would be most appropriate and closest to the accepted histologic grading system as it applies Scarff-Bloom-Richardson histological grading system with modifications on FNA smears. We recommend it to be followed by all cytopathologists, in order to bring uniformity in the reporting of breast FNAs for grading the malignant lesions.


Srivastava A.N.,Eras Medical College and Hospital | Srivastava S.,Sanjay Ghandi Postgraduate Institute of Medical science SGPGIMS | Bansal C.,Eras Medical College and Hospital | Misra J.S.,Eras Medical College and Hospital
ecancermedicalscience | Year: 2013

Objective: Nucleolar organizer region (NOR) associated proteins are argyrophilic and visualized by silver stains. AgNOR pleomorphic dots increase in cancer and most researchers have done a common count of single dots. Pleomorphic dots are few and perhaps indicate a more severe prognosis. The present study was aimed at investigating the relative preponderance and diagnostic value of both pleomorphic and single AgNOR dots in cervical carcinogenesis. Study design: Silver nitrate staining was performed in 50 cervical smears each of cytologically diagnosed normal, inflammatory, low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), and squamous cell carcinoma cases registered at C.S.M. Medical University, Lucknow, India. Results: The accumulated data revealed a positive and significant correlation of cell counts of both pleomorphic (r = 0.94; p < 0.01) and single dots (r = 0.95; p < 0.01) with disease severity. The rate of increase in cell counts of pleomorphic dots (b = 2.61) was 1.1 times higher than the rate of increase in cell counts of single dots (b = 2.29). Conclusion: This study indicates the diagnostic potential of pleomorphic dots in the process of cervical carcinogenesis. The number of pleomorphic dots also varies significantly in different types of SIL, which may help in discriminating precancerous lesions of the cervix. Copyright: © the authors.


Bansal C.,Eras Medical College and Hospital | Singh U.S.,Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University | Misra S.,Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University | Sharma K.L.,Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University | And 2 more authors.
CytoJournal | Year: 2012

Background: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is a quick, minimally invasive procedure for evaluation of breast tumors. The Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR) grade on histological sections is a well-established tool to guide selection of adjuvant systemic therapy. Grade evaluation is possible on cytology smears to avoid and minimize the morbidity associated with overtreatment of lower grade tumors. Aim : The aim was to test the hypothesis whether breast FNA from the peripheral portion of the lesion is representative of Scarff-Bloom-Richardson grade on histopathology as compared to FNA from the central portion. Materials and Methods : Fine-needle aspirates and subsequent tissue specimens from 45 women with ductal carcinoma (not otherwise specified) were studied. FNAs were performed under ultrasound guidance from the central as well as the peripheral third of the lesion for each case avoiding areas of necrosis/calcification. The SBR grading was compared on alcohol fixed aspirates and tissue sections for each case. Results : Comparative analysis of SBR grade on aspirates from the peripheral portion and histopathology by the Pearson chi-square test (χ2 =78.00) showed that it was statistically significant (P<0.001) with 93% concordance. Lower mitotic score on aspirates from the peripheral portion was observed in only 4 out of 45 (9%) cases. The results of the Pearson chi-square test (χ2 = 75.824) with statistically significant (P=0.000). Conclusion : This prospective study shows that FNA smears from the peripheral portion of the lesion are representative of the grading performed on the corresponding histopathological sections. It is possible to score and grade by SBR system on FNA smears. © 2012 Shidham VB, et al.; licensee Cytopathology Foundation Inc.


Bansal C.,University of Lucknow | Bansal C.,Eras Medical College and Hospital | Sharma K.L.,Sanjay Ghandi Postgraduate Institute of Medical science SGPGIMS | Misra S.,University of Lucknow | And 3 more authors.
ecancermedicalscience | Year: 2014

Objective: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short regulatory RNAs that can modulate gene expression and function as negative regulators. Common genetic variants like single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNA genes may alter their expression or maturation resulting in varied functional consequences in carcinogenesis. Therefore, we evaluated the genetic variants in pre-miRNAs: hsa-miR-146a G/C (rs2910164), hsa-miR-196a2 C/T (rs11614913), and hsa-miR-499 T>C (rs3746444) for their role in breast cancer susceptibility. Study design: The study comprised 121 breast cancer patients, 115 with benign breast disease, and 164 controls. The genotypic frequency of miRNA polymorphisms was determined by PCR-RFLP assay. Logistic regression was used for statistical analysis using SPSS Software version 15.0. In silico analysis was done using various bioinformatics tools (F-SNP, FAST-SNP). Results: The heterozygous variant of miR-146a G/C (rs2910164) is associated with the reduced risk of breast cancer at the genotype level as well as at the allele level (p < 0.05, OR = 0.5) as compared to controls. On the contrary, no significant difference was observed in the distribution of miR-196a2 C/T (rs11614913) and miR-499 T>C (rs3746444) polymorphisms in any groups both at genotype and allele levels. On the other hand, in multivariate analysis, we found that the miR-196a2 (rs11614913) C>T was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer risk in postmenopausal females (p = 0.02, OR = 3.2). We also attempted to find out the risk of malignant breast disease in relation to each of the above SNPs on dividing our data on the basis of benign and malignant status, but no significant difference was observed. In silico analysis using F-SNP showed change in transcriptional regulation by miR-146a G/C (rs2910164), miR-196a2 C/T (rs11614913) and miR-499 T>C (rs3746444) variations; the functional score was 0.100, 0.065 and 0.277, respectively. © the authors; licensee ecancermedicalscience.


Chandra S.,Eras Medical College and Hospital | Momi H.,Eras Medical College and Hospital
Journal of Pediatric Neurology | Year: 2014

Landry Guillain-Barré syndrome is an acute onset, progressive, bilateral symmetrical polyneuropathy of autoimmune origin. Neuropathy is due to immune attack of the peripheral nerve antigens, which exhibit molecular mimicry with the antigens of the preceding infectious agent, usually of acute respiratory and gastrointestinal illnesses. Pulmonary tuberculosis is widespread in developing countries and it is showing resurgence in the developed countries. We report a case of Guillan-Barré syndrome in association with pulmonary tuberculosis in a 9-year-old child. © 2014 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Eras Medical College and Hospital
Type: | Journal: CytoJournal | Year: 2012

Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is a quick, minimally invasive procedure for evaluation of breast tumors. The Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR) grade on histological sections is a well-established tool to guide selection of adjuvant systemic therapy. Grade evaluation is possible on cytology smears to avoid and minimize the morbidity associated with overtreatment of lower grade tumors.The aim was to test the hypothesis whether breast FNA from the peripheral portion of the lesion is representative of Scarff-Bloom-Richardson grade on histopathology as compared to FNA from the central portion.Fine-needle aspirates and subsequent tissue specimens from 45 women with ductal carcinoma (not otherwise specified) were studied. FNAs were performed under ultrasound guidance from the central as well as the peripheral third of the lesion for each case avoiding areas of necrosis/calcification. The SBR grading was compared on alcohol fixed aspirates and tissue sections for each case.Comparative analysis of SBR grade on aspirates from the peripheral portion and histopathology by the Pearson chi-square test ((2) =78.00) showed that it was statistically significant (P<0.001) with 93% concordance. Lower mitotic score on aspirates from the peripheral portion was observed in only 4 out of 45 (9%) cases. The results of the Pearson chi-square test ((2) = 75.824) with statistically significant (P=0.000).This prospective study shows that FNA smears from the peripheral portion of the lesion are representative of the grading performed on the corresponding histopathological sections. It is possible to score and grade by SBR system on FNA smears.


PubMed | Eras Medical College and Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Turk patoloji dergisi | Year: 2016

Circulating tumor cells are isolated tumor cells in the peripheral blood that serve as important prognostic indicators for many kind of tumors. The study was conducted to know the rate of detection of circulating tumor cells among breast cancer patients in comparison with benign breast diseases and control subjects and to know the association between CTC positivity and various clinicopathological parameters, hormonal profile and microRNA polymorphisms.In the present case control study, we included 182 healthy controls, 108 cases of benign breast disease and 114 breast carcinoma cases. Various clinicopathological details of cases were recorded. Immunohistochemistry was performed for estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) and Her-2 neu. Circulating tumor cells were analyzed using flow cytometry (EpCAM, CK, CD45). Genotypic frequency of micro RNA polymorphisms was determined by PCR-RFLP assay.Circulating tumor cell positivity was observed in 11/114 (9.64%) breast cancer cases but absent in benign and control groups, and was significantly associated with tumor size, histologic type, tumor grade, metastasis and skin infiltration (p < 0.05). Circulating tumor cell positivity did not show any correlation with the immunohistochemical profile. No significant associations between pre-miRNA genetic variations miR-196a2 C/T (rs11614913), miR-146a G/C (rs2910164) and miR-499 T > C (rs3746444) polymorphisms and circulating tumor cell positivity were observed.The flow cytometry protocol for detection and molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells is a time and cost-effective technique, suitable for routine clinical use. However, more elaborate studies are needed to establish the findings as our study was limited by small sample size.


PubMed | Eras Medical College and Hospital, Sanjay Ghandi Postgraduate Institute of Medical science SGPGIMS and University of Lucknow
Type: | Journal: Ecancermedicalscience | Year: 2014

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short regulatory RNAs that can modulate gene expression and function as negative regulators. Common genetic variants like single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNA genes may alter their expression or maturation resulting in varied functional consequences in carcinogenesis. Therefore, we evaluated the genetic variants in pre-miRNAs: hsa-miR-146a G/C (rs2910164), hsa-miR-196a2 C/T (rs11614913), and hsa-miR-499 T>C (rs3746444) for their role in breast cancer susceptibility.The study comprised 121 breast cancer patients, 115 with benign breast disease, and 164 controls. The genotypic frequency of miRNA polymorphisms was determined by PCR-RFLP assay. Logistic regression was used for statistical analysis using SPSS Software version 15.0. In silico analysis was done using various bioinformatics tools (F-SNP, FAST-SNP).The heterozygous variant of miR-146a G/C (rs2910164) is associated with the reduced risk of breast cancer at the genotype level as well as at the allele level (p < 0.05, OR = 0.5) as compared to controls. On the contrary, no significant difference was observed in the distribution of miR-196a2 C/T (rs11614913) and miR-499 T>C (rs3746444) polymorphisms in any groups both at genotype and allele levels. On the other hand, in multivariate analysis, we found that the miR-196a2 (rs11614913) C>T was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer risk in postmenopausal females (p = 0.02, OR = 3.2). We also attempted to find out the risk of malignant breast disease in relation to each of the above SNPs on dividing our data on the basis of benign and malignant status, but no significant difference was observed. In silico analysis using F-SNP showed change in transcriptional regulation by miR-146a G/C (rs2910164), miR-196a2 C/T (rs11614913) and miR-499 T>C (rs3746444) variations; the functional score was 0.100, 0.065 and 0.277, respectively.The results of the present study demonstrate that miR-146a G/C (rs2910164) polymorphism is associated with reduced genetic susceptibility to breast cancer. However, multivariate analysis showed as miR-196a2 (rs11614913) C>T to be associated with increased risk of breast cancer risk in postmenopausal females. Further multicentric studies involving a large number of cases need to be carried out to strengthen the present results.

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