Equispharm Inc.

Pohang, South Korea

Equispharm Inc.

Pohang, South Korea
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Kim N.D.,Yonsei University | Kim N.D.,Equispharm Inc. | Park E.-S.,Konkuk University | Kim Y.H.,Equispharm Inc. | And 6 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2010

Microtubule cytoskeletons are involved in many essential functions throughout the life cycle of cells, including transport of materials into cells, cell movement, and proper progression of cell division. Small compounds that can bind at the colchicine site of tubulin have drawn great attention because these agents can suppress or inhibit microtubule dynamics and tubulin polymerization. To find novel tubulin polymerization inhibitors as anti-mitotic agents, we performed a virtual screening study of the colchicine binding site on tubulin. Novel tubulin inhibitors were identified and characterized by their inhibitory activities on tubulin polymerization in vitro. The structural basis for the interaction of novel inhibitors with tubulin was investigated by molecular modeling, and we have proposed binding models for these hit compounds with tubulin. The proposed docking models were very similar to the binding pattern of colchicine or podophyllotoxin with tubulin. These new hit compound derivatives exerted growth inhibitory effects on the HL60 cell lines tested and exhibited strong cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. Furthermore, these compounds induced apoptosis after cell cycle arrest. In this study, we show that the validated derivatives of compound 11 could serve as potent lead compounds for designing novel anti-cancer agents that target microtubules. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kim K.-H.,Konkuk University | Kim N.D.,Equispharm Inc. | Seong B.-L.,Yonsei University
Molecules | Year: 2010

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a prime cause of liver diseases such as hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The current drugs clinically available are nucleot(s)ide analogues that inhibit viral reverse transcriptase activity. Most drugs of this class are reported to have viral resistance with breakthrough. Recent advances in methods for in silico virtual screening of chemical libraries, together with a better understanding of the resistance mechanisms of existing drugs have expedited the discovery and development of novel anti-viral drugs. This review summarizes the current status of knowledge about and viral resistance of HBV drugs, approaches for the development of novel drugs as well as new viral and host targets for future drugs. © 2010 by the authors.

Kim J.,Soongsil University | Kim J.,Equispharm Inc. | Ahn Y.,Soongsil University | Ahn Y.,Macrogen Inc. | And 3 more authors.
BMC Bioinformatics | Year: 2010

Background: Accurate classification into genotypes is critical in understanding evolution of divergent viruses. Here we report a new approach, MuLDAS, which classifies a query sequence based on the statistical genotype models learned from the known sequences. Thus, MuLDAS utilizes full spectra of well characterized sequences as references, typically of an order of hundreds, in order to estimate the significance of each genotype assignment.Results: MuLDAS starts by aligning the query sequence to the reference multiple sequence alignment and calculating the subsequent distance matrix among the sequences. They are then mapped to a principal coordinate space by multidimensional scaling, and the coordinates of the reference sequences are used as features in developing linear discriminant models that partition the space by genotype. The genotype of the query is then given as the maximum a posteriori estimate. MuLDAS tests the model confidence by leave-one-out cross-validation and also provides some heuristics for the detection of 'outlier' sequences that fall far outside or in-between genotype clusters. We have tested our method by classifying HIV-1 and HCV nucleotide sequences downloaded from NCBI GenBank, achieving the overall concordance rates of 99.3% and 96.6%, respectively, with the benchmark test dataset retrieved from the respective databases of Los Alamos National Laboratory.Conclusions: The highly accurate genotype assignment coupled with several measures for evaluating the results makes MuLDAS useful in analyzing the sequences of rapidly evolving viruses such as HIV-1 and HCV. A web-based genotype prediction server is available at http://www.muldas.org/MuLDAS/. © 2010 Kim et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Jung H.J.,Yonsei University | Shim J.S.,Yonsei University | Lee J.,Yonsei University | Song Y.M.,Yonsei University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2010

Cellular oxygen sensing is required for hypoxia-inducible factor-1α stabilization, which is important for tumor cell survival, proliferation, and angiogenesis. Here we find that terpestacin, a small molecule previously identified in a screen of microbial extracts, binds to the 13.4-kDa subunit (UQCRB) of mitochondrial Complex III, resulting in inhibition of hypoxia-induced reactive oxygen species generation. Consequently, such inhibition blocks hypoxia-inducible factor activation and tumor angiogenesis in vivo, without inhibiting mitochondrial respiration. Overexpression of UQCRB or its suppression using RNA interference demonstrates that it plays a crucial role in the oxygen sensing mechanism that regulates responses to hypoxia. These findings provide a novel molecular basis of terpestacin targeting UQCRB of Complex III in selective suppression of tumor progression. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Jung H.J.,Yonsei University | Kim K.H.,Yonsei University | Kim N.D.,Equispharm Inc. | Han G.,Yonsei University | Kwon H.J.,Yonsei University
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2011

Our recent study has shown that ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase binding protein (UQCRB), the 13.4-kDa subunit of mitochondrial complex III, plays a crucial role in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis via mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated signaling. Here we report a new synthetic small molecule targeting the mitochondrial oxygen sensor UQCRB that was identified by pharmacophore-based virtual screening and in vitro and in vivo competition binding analyses. 6-((1-Hydroxynaphthalen-4-ylamino)dioxysulfone)-2H-naphtho[1, 8-bc]thiophen-2-one (HDNT) binds to the hydrophobic pocket of UQCRB and potently inhibits in vitro angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells without cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the binding of HDNT to UQCRB suppressed mitochondrial ROS-mediated hypoxic signal transduction. These results demonstrated that HDNT is a novel synthetic small molecule targeting UQCRB and exhibits anti-angiogenic activity by modulating the oxygen-sensing function of UQCRB. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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