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Salazar-Flores J.,University of Guadalajara | Zuniga-Chiquette F.,Laboratorio Of Genetica Forense | Rubi-Castellanos R.,Autonomous University of Yucatan | Alvarez-Miranda J.L.,Laboratorio Of Genetica Forense | And 12 more authors.
Homo : internationale Zeitschrift für die vergleichende Forschung am Menschen | Year: 2015

Short tandem repeats (STRs) of the combined DNA index system (CODIS) are probably the most employed markers for human identification purposes. STR databases generated to interpret DNA profiles are also helpful for anthropological purposes. In this work, we report admixture, population structure, and genetic relationships of Mexican Mestizos with respect to Latin American and Caribbean populations based on 13 CODIS-STRs. In addition, new STR population data were included from Tijuana, Baja California (Northwest, Mexico), which represents an interesting case of elevated genetic flow as a bordering city with the USA. Inter-population analyses included CODIS-STR data from 11 Mexican Mestizo, 12 Latin American and four Caribbean populations, in addition to European, Amerindian, and African genetic pools as ancestral references. We report allele frequencies and statistical parameters of forensic interest (PD, PE, Het, PIC, typical PI), for 15 STRs in Tijuana, Baja California. This Mexican border city was peculiar by the increase of African ancestry, and by presenting three STRs in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium, probably explained by recurrent gene flow. The Amerindian ancestry in Central and Southeast of Mexico was the greatest in Latin America (50.9-68.6%), only comparable with the North of Central America and Ecuador (48.8-56.4%), whereas the European ancestry was prevalent in South America (66.7-75%). The African ancestry in Mexico was the smallest (2.2-6.3%) in Latin America (≥ 2.6%), particularly regarding Brazil (21%), Honduras (62%), and the Caribbean (43.2-65.2%). CODIS-STRs allowed detecting significant population structure in Latin America based on greater presence of European, Amerindian, and African ancestries in Central/South America, Mexican Mestizos, and the Caribbean, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

Romanini C.,Equipo Argentino de Antropologia Forense | Ferrer M.R.,Equipo Argentino de Antropologia Forense | Catelli M.L.,Equipo Argentino de Antropologia Forense | Vullo C.,LIDMO
Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series | Year: 2011

With the aim to increase the chance of obtaining DNA profiles from challenging forensic samples, several strategies are tested. One of the most powerful tools used in forensic DNA typing are commercial amplification kits. Enhanced buffers are provided with these kits allowing amplification of highly degraded or inhibited samples. For low DNA samples, sensitivity can be increased by raising the PCR cycle number. This study presents the results of the comparison made between Identifiler™ versus Identifiler Plus™ by using normal and increased PCR cycle number. Fifteen samples of 30-40 years post-mortem belonging to missing persons during military governments in Argentina were tested with Identifiler™ using 28 and 34 PCR cycles and with Identifiler Plus™ using 29 and 32 PCR cycles in order to compare both amplification kits. A high percentage of samples showed higher number of amplified loci with Identifiler Plus™ than with Identifiler™. This effect is more evident when increased PCR cycle number was used.Also, there were samples that exhibited identical number of amplified loci by using both kits. These samples showed high degraded DNA characteristics and the amplified loci were not the same for each amplification kit. For a group of samples that displayed flat profiles using normal PCR cycles for both kits, increased PCR cycles allowed a profile improvement that was higher using Identifiler™ with 34 PCR cycles than using Identifiler Plus™ with 32 cycles. Characteristics of highly degraded DNA or low DNA concentration were found in these samples. Furthermore, Identifiler Plus™ showed a lower percentage of locus drop-out than Identifiler™ for most of the analyzed loci and also an improved amplification success of the larger loci. On the basis of our results, Identifiler Plus™ offers a more increasing chance of DNA typing than Identifiler™ does, based on the new buffer which mainly allows overcoming PCR inhibition. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Vullo C.,LIDMO | Borosky A.,LIDMO | Romanini C.,Equipo Argentino de Antropologia Forense | Catelli L.,Equipo Argentino de Antropologia Forense | Yamamoto T.,Nagoya University
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2010

Allele frequencies and forensic parameters for twelve miniSTR autosomal loci (D10S1248, D14S1434, D22S1045, D4S2364, D2S441, D1S1677, D20S480, D6S2439, D6S1056, D9S1118, D4S2639 and D17S1290) were calculated from a sample of 506 unrelated individuals from the Central-East Region of Argentina. No significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations were found. Furthermore, comparisons with other previously studied populations were made. These twelve miniSTR markers may help forensic laboratories in solving parentage testing as well as in typing degraded DNA samples. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Catelli M.L.,Equipo Argentino de Antropologia Forense | Alvarez-Iglesias V.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Gomez-Carballa A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Mosquera-Miguel A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | And 7 more authors.
BMC Genetics | Year: 2011

Background: The genetic background of Argentineans is a mosaic of different continental ancestries. From colonial to present times, the genetic contribution of Europeans and sub-Saharan Africans has superposed to or replaced the indigenous genetic 'stratum'. A sample of 384 individuals representing different Argentinean provinces was collected and genotyped for the first and the second mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable regions, and selectively genotyped for mtDNA SNPs. This data was analyzed together with additional 440 profiles from rural and urban populations plus 304 from Native American Argentineans, all available from the literature. A worldwide database was used for phylogeographic inferences, inter-population comparisons, and admixture analysis. Samples identified as belonging to hg (hg) H2a5 were sequenced for the entire mtDNA genome.Results: Phylogenetic and admixture analyses indicate that only half of the Native American component in urban Argentineans might be attributed to the legacy of extinct ancestral Argentineans and that the Spanish genetic contribution is slightly higher than the Italian one. Entire H2a5 genomes linked these Argentinean mtDNAs to the Basque Country and improved the phylogeny of this Basque autochthonous clade. The fingerprint of African slaves in urban Argentinean mtDNAs was low and it can be phylogeographically attributed predominantly to western African. The European component is significantly more prevalent in the Buenos Aires province, the main gate of entrance for Atlantic immigration to Argentina, while the Native American component is larger in North and South Argentina. AMOVA, Principal Component Analysis and hgs/haplotype patterns in Argentina revealed an important level of genetic sub-structure in the country.Conclusions: Studies aimed to compare mtDNA frequency profiles from different Argentinean geographical regions (e.g., forensic and case-control studies) should take into account the important genetic heterogeneity of the country in order to prevent false positive claims of association in disease studies or inadequate evaluation of forensic evidence. © 2011 Catelli et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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