Equipo Argentino de Antropologia Forense

El Calafate, Argentina

Equipo Argentino de Antropologia Forense

El Calafate, Argentina
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Salazar-Flores J.,University of Guadalajara | Zuniga-Chiquette F.,Laboratorio Of Genetica Forense | Rubi-Castellanos R.,Autonomous University of Yucatán | Alvarez-Miranda J.L.,Laboratorio Of Genetica Forense | And 12 more authors.
Homo : internationale Zeitschrift für die vergleichende Forschung am Menschen | Year: 2015

Short tandem repeats (STRs) of the combined DNA index system (CODIS) are probably the most employed markers for human identification purposes. STR databases generated to interpret DNA profiles are also helpful for anthropological purposes. In this work, we report admixture, population structure, and genetic relationships of Mexican Mestizos with respect to Latin American and Caribbean populations based on 13 CODIS-STRs. In addition, new STR population data were included from Tijuana, Baja California (Northwest, Mexico), which represents an interesting case of elevated genetic flow as a bordering city with the USA. Inter-population analyses included CODIS-STR data from 11 Mexican Mestizo, 12 Latin American and four Caribbean populations, in addition to European, Amerindian, and African genetic pools as ancestral references. We report allele frequencies and statistical parameters of forensic interest (PD, PE, Het, PIC, typical PI), for 15 STRs in Tijuana, Baja California. This Mexican border city was peculiar by the increase of African ancestry, and by presenting three STRs in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium, probably explained by recurrent gene flow. The Amerindian ancestry in Central and Southeast of Mexico was the greatest in Latin America (50.9-68.6%), only comparable with the North of Central America and Ecuador (48.8-56.4%), whereas the European ancestry was prevalent in South America (66.7-75%). The African ancestry in Mexico was the smallest (2.2-6.3%) in Latin America (≥ 2.6%), particularly regarding Brazil (21%), Honduras (62%), and the Caribbean (43.2-65.2%). CODIS-STRs allowed detecting significant population structure in Latin America based on greater presence of European, Amerindian, and African ancestries in Central/South America, Mexican Mestizos, and the Caribbean, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.


Vullo C.,Laboratory Of Inmunogenetica Y Diagnostico Molecular | Borosky A.,Laboratory Of Inmunogenetica Y Diagnostico Molecular | Catelli M.,Equipo Argentino de Antropologia Forense | Romanini C.,Equipo Argentino de Antropologia Forense | And 4 more authors.
Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series | Year: 2011

Forensic laboratories must add as much genetic information as possible in order to solve the broadened variety of post-mortem paternity and kinship cases now routinely presented. Often, use of STR autosomal markers alone is not enough to reach a high discrimination power, especially when dealing with degraded post-mortem material or complex family pedigrees. In order to expand the set of genetic markers used to solve challenging cases, and since reference databases are required in forensic application, allele frequencies and forensic parameters for 38 InDel and 50 SNP binary markers were calculated from a sample of thirty (for SNPs) and fifty (for InDels) unrelated individuals from the two most populous cities of Argentina: Córdoba and Buenos Aires. DNA was extracted with a modified salting out procedure and amplification products were detected on an ABI 3130 Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems). No significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations were found. In the analyzed sample, no pairwise linkage disequilibrium between InDels and SNPs was found neither among the 88 binary markers nor the 17 STR markers from commercial kits. Comparisons were also made with previously studied populations. The present database will be useful for forensic and paternity purposes for the above mentioned cities of Argentina. Moreover, these additional markers can help forensic laboratories to solve parentage testing as well as to improve the analysis of degraded DNA samples. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Romanini C.,Equipo Argentino de Antropologia Forense | Ferrer M.R.,Equipo Argentino de Antropologia Forense | Catelli M.L.,Equipo Argentino de Antropologia Forense | Vullo C.,LIDMO
Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series | Year: 2011

With the aim to increase the chance of obtaining DNA profiles from challenging forensic samples, several strategies are tested. One of the most powerful tools used in forensic DNA typing are commercial amplification kits. Enhanced buffers are provided with these kits allowing amplification of highly degraded or inhibited samples. For low DNA samples, sensitivity can be increased by raising the PCR cycle number. This study presents the results of the comparison made between Identifiler™ versus Identifiler Plus™ by using normal and increased PCR cycle number. Fifteen samples of 30-40 years post-mortem belonging to missing persons during military governments in Argentina were tested with Identifiler™ using 28 and 34 PCR cycles and with Identifiler Plus™ using 29 and 32 PCR cycles in order to compare both amplification kits. A high percentage of samples showed higher number of amplified loci with Identifiler Plus™ than with Identifiler™. This effect is more evident when increased PCR cycle number was used.Also, there were samples that exhibited identical number of amplified loci by using both kits. These samples showed high degraded DNA characteristics and the amplified loci were not the same for each amplification kit. For a group of samples that displayed flat profiles using normal PCR cycles for both kits, increased PCR cycles allowed a profile improvement that was higher using Identifiler™ with 34 PCR cycles than using Identifiler Plus™ with 32 cycles. Characteristics of highly degraded DNA or low DNA concentration were found in these samples. Furthermore, Identifiler Plus™ showed a lower percentage of locus drop-out than Identifiler™ for most of the analyzed loci and also an improved amplification success of the larger loci. On the basis of our results, Identifiler Plus™ offers a more increasing chance of DNA typing than Identifiler™ does, based on the new buffer which mainly allows overcoming PCR inhibition. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Vullo C.,LIDMO | Borosky A.,LIDMO | Romanini C.,Equipo Argentino de Antropologia Forense | Catelli L.,Equipo Argentino de Antropologia Forense | Yamamoto T.,Nagoya University
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2010

Allele frequencies and forensic parameters for twelve miniSTR autosomal loci (D10S1248, D14S1434, D22S1045, D4S2364, D2S441, D1S1677, D20S480, D6S2439, D6S1056, D9S1118, D4S2639 and D17S1290) were calculated from a sample of 506 unrelated individuals from the Central-East Region of Argentina. No significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations were found. Furthermore, comparisons with other previously studied populations were made. These twelve miniSTR markers may help forensic laboratories in solving parentage testing as well as in typing degraded DNA samples. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


Catelli M.L.,Equipo Argentino de Antropologia Forense | Alvarez-Iglesias V.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Gomez-Carballa A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Mosquera-Miguel A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | And 7 more authors.
BMC Genetics | Year: 2011

Background: The genetic background of Argentineans is a mosaic of different continental ancestries. From colonial to present times, the genetic contribution of Europeans and sub-Saharan Africans has superposed to or replaced the indigenous genetic 'stratum'. A sample of 384 individuals representing different Argentinean provinces was collected and genotyped for the first and the second mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable regions, and selectively genotyped for mtDNA SNPs. This data was analyzed together with additional 440 profiles from rural and urban populations plus 304 from Native American Argentineans, all available from the literature. A worldwide database was used for phylogeographic inferences, inter-population comparisons, and admixture analysis. Samples identified as belonging to hg (hg) H2a5 were sequenced for the entire mtDNA genome.Results: Phylogenetic and admixture analyses indicate that only half of the Native American component in urban Argentineans might be attributed to the legacy of extinct ancestral Argentineans and that the Spanish genetic contribution is slightly higher than the Italian one. Entire H2a5 genomes linked these Argentinean mtDNAs to the Basque Country and improved the phylogeny of this Basque autochthonous clade. The fingerprint of African slaves in urban Argentinean mtDNAs was low and it can be phylogeographically attributed predominantly to western African. The European component is significantly more prevalent in the Buenos Aires province, the main gate of entrance for Atlantic immigration to Argentina, while the Native American component is larger in North and South Argentina. AMOVA, Principal Component Analysis and hgs/haplotype patterns in Argentina revealed an important level of genetic sub-structure in the country.Conclusions: Studies aimed to compare mtDNA frequency profiles from different Argentinean geographical regions (e.g., forensic and case-control studies) should take into account the important genetic heterogeneity of the country in order to prevent false positive claims of association in disease studies or inadequate evaluation of forensic evidence. © 2011 Catelli et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Taboada-Echalar P.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Alvarez-Iglesias V.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Heinz T.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Vidal-Bralo L.,University of Santiago de Compostela | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Only a few genetic studies have been carried out to date in Bolivia. However, some of the most important (pre)historical enclaves of South America were located in these territories. Thus, the (sub)-Andean region of Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. We have genotyped the first hypervariable region (HVS-I) of 720 samples representing the main regions in Bolivia, and these data have been analyzed in the context of other pan-American samples (>19,000 HVS-I mtDNAs). Entire mtDNA genome sequencing was also undertaken on selected Native American lineages. Additionally, a panel of 46 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) was genotyped in a sub-set of samples. The vast majority of the Bolivian mtDNAs (98.4%) were found to belong to the main Native American haplogroups (A: 14.3%, B: 52.6%, C: 21.9%, D: 9.6%), with little indication of sub-Saharan and/or European lineages; however, marked patterns of haplogroup frequencies between main regions exist (e.g. haplogroup B: Andean [71%], Sub-Andean [61%], Llanos [32%]). Analysis of entire genomes unraveled the phylogenetic characteristics of three Native haplogroups: the pan-American haplogroup B2b (originated ~21.4 thousand years ago [kya]), A2ah (~5.2 kya), and B2o (~2.6 kya). The data suggest that B2b could have arisen in North California (an origin even in the north most region of the American continent cannot be disregarded), moved southward following the Pacific coastline and crossed Meso-America. Then, it most likely spread into South America following two routes: the Pacific path towards Peru and Bolivia (arriving here at about ~15.2 kya), and the Amazonian route of Venezuela and Brazil southwards. In contrast to the mtDNA, Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) reveal a higher (although geographically variable) European introgression in Bolivians (25%). Bolivia shows a decreasing autosomal molecular diversity pattern along the longitudinal axis, from the Altiplano to the lowlands. Both autosomes and mtDNA revealed a low impact (1-2%) of a sub-Saharan component in Bolivians. © 2013 Taboada-Echalar et al.


PubMed | Charité - Medical University of Berlin, University of Santiago de Compostela and Equipo Argentino de Antropologia Forense
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2015

In 1985, a frozen mummy was found in Cerro Aconcagua (Argentina). Archaeological studies identified the mummy as a seven-year-old Inca sacrifice victim who lived >500 years ago, at the time of the expansion of the Inca Empire towards the southern cone. The sequence of its entire mitogenome was obtained. After querying a large worldwide database of mitogenomes (>28,000) we found that the Inca haplotype belonged to a branch of haplogroup C1b (C1bi) that has not yet been identified in modern Native Americans. The expansion of C1b into the Americas, as estimated using 203 C1b mitogenomes, dates to the initial Paleoindian settlements (~18.3 thousand years ago [kya]); however, its internal variation differs between Mesoamerica and South America. By querying large databases of control region haplotypes (>150,000), we found only a few C1bi members in Peru and Bolivia (e.g. Aymaras), including one haplotype retrieved from ancient DNA of an individual belonging to the Wari Empire (Peruvian Andes). Overall, the results suggest that the profile of the mummy represents a very rare sub-clade that arose 14.3 (5-23.6) kya and could have been more frequent in the past. A Peruvian Inca origin for present-day C1bi haplotypes would satisfy both the genetic and paleo-anthropological findings.


PubMed | Equipo Argentino de Antropologia Forense
Type: | Journal: BMC genetics | Year: 2011

The genetic background of Argentineans is a mosaic of different continental ancestries. From colonial to present times, the genetic contribution of Europeans and sub-Saharan Africans has superposed to or replaced the indigenous genetic stratum. A sample of 384 individuals representing different Argentinean provinces was collected and genotyped for the first and the second mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable regions, and selectively genotyped for mtDNA SNPs. This data was analyzed together with additional 440 profiles from rural and urban populations plus 304 from Native American Argentineans, all available from the literature. A worldwide database was used for phylogeographic inferences, inter-population comparisons, and admixture analysis. Samples identified as belonging to hg (hg) H2a5 were sequenced for the entire mtDNA genome.Phylogenetic and admixture analyses indicate that only half of the Native American component in urban Argentineans might be attributed to the legacy of extinct ancestral Argentineans and that the Spanish genetic contribution is slightly higher than the Italian one. Entire H2a5 genomes linked these Argentinean mtDNAs to the Basque Country and improved the phylogeny of this Basque autochthonous clade. The fingerprint of African slaves in urban Argentinean mtDNAs was low and it can be phylogeographically attributed predominantly to western African. The European component is significantly more prevalent in the Buenos Aires province, the main gate of entrance for Atlantic immigration to Argentina, while the Native American component is larger in North and South Argentina. AMOVA, Principal Component Analysis and hgs/haplotype patterns in Argentina revealed an important level of genetic sub-structure in the country.Studies aimed to compare mtDNA frequency profiles from different Argentinean geographical regions (e.g., forensic and case-control studies) should take into account the important genetic heterogeneity of the country in order to prevent false positive claims of association in disease studies or inadequate evaluation of forensic evidence.

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