Villejuif, France
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Belaid A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Belaid A.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Belaid A.,Equipe Labellisee Par Larc | Belaid A.,Harvard University | And 20 more authors.
Current Cancer Drug Targets | Year: 2015

Survival rates of patients with metastatic or recurrent cancers have remained virtually unchanged during the past 30 years. This fact makes the need for new therapeutic options even more urgent. An attractive option would be to target autophagy, an essential quality control process that degrades toxic aggregates, damaged organelles, and signaling proteins, and acts as a tumor suppressor pathway of tumor initiation. Conversely, other fascinating observations suggest that autophagy supports cancer progression, relapse, metastasis, dormancy and resistance to therapy. This review provides an overview of the contradictory roles that autophagy plays in cancer initiation and progression and discusses the promises and challenges of current strategies that target autophagy for cancer therapy. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers.


Belaid A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Belaid A.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Belaid A.,Equipe Labellisee par lARC | Cerezo M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 36 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2013

Degradation of signaling proteins is one of the most powerful tumor-suppressive mechanisms by which a cell can control its own growth. Here, we identify RHOA as the molecular target by which autophagy maintains genomic stability. Specifically, inhibition of autophagosome degradation by the loss of the v-ATPase a3 (TCIRG1) subunit is sufficient to induce aneuploidy. Underlying this phenotype, active RHOA is sequestered via p62 (SQSTM1) within autolysosomes and fails to localize to the plasma membrane or to the spindle midbody. Conversely, inhibition of autophagosome formation by ATG5 shRNA dramatically increases localization of active RHOA at the midbody, followed by diffusion to the flanking zones. As a result, all of the approaches we examined that compromise autophagy (irrespective of the defect: autophagosome formation, sequestration, or degradation) drive cytokinesis failure, multinucleation, and aneuploidy, processes that directly have an impact upon cancer progression. Consistently, we report a positive correlation between autophagy defects and the higher expression of RHOA in human lung carcinoma. We therefore propose that autophagy may act, in part, as a safeguard mechanism that degrades and thereby maintains the appropriate level of active RHOA at the midbody for faithful completion of cytokinesis and genome inheritance. © 2013 AACR.


Hofman V.,Sophia University | Hofman V.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Hofman V.,Hospital Integrated Biobank06 | Ilie M.,Sophia University | And 23 more authors.
Current Molecular Medicine | Year: 2014

Interest in biomarkers in the field of thoracic oncology is focused on the search for new robust tests for diagnosis (in particular for screening), prognosis and theragnosis. These biomarkers can be detected in tissues and/or cells, but also in biological fluids, mainly the blood. In this context, there is growing interest in the detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood of lung cancer patients since CTC identification, enumeration and characterization may have a direct impact on diagnosis, prognosis and theragnosis in the daily clinical practice. Many direct and indirect methods have been developed to detect and characterize CTCs in lung cancer patients. However, these different approaches still hold limitations and many of them have demonstrated unequal sensitivity and specificity. Indeed, these methods hold advantages but also certain disadvantages. Therefore, despite the promises, it is currently difficult and premature to apply this methodology to the routine care of lung cancer patients. This situation is the consequence of the analysis of the methodological approaches for the detection and characterization of CTCs and of the results published to date. Finally, the advent of targeted cancer therapies in thoracic oncology has stimulated considerable interest in non-invasive detection of genomic alterations in tumors over time through the analysis of CTCs, an approach that may help clinicians to optimize therapeutic strategies for lung cancer patients. We describe here the main methods for CTC detection, the advantages and limitations of these different approaches and the potential usefulness and value of CTC characterization in the field of thoracic oncology. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.


Belaid A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Belaid A.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Belaid A.,Equipe Labellisee Par lArc | Belaid A.,Center Antoine Lacassagne | And 25 more authors.
Autophagy | Year: 2014

Degradation of signaling proteins is one of the most powerful tumor-suppressive mechanisms by which a cell can control its own growth, its survival, and its motility. Emerging evidence suggests that autophagy limits several signaling pathways by degrading kinases, downstream components, and transcription factors; however, this often occurs under stressful conditions. Our recent studies revealed that constitutive autophagy temporally and spatially controls the RHOA pathway. Specifically, inhibition of autophagosome degradation induces the accumulation of the GTP-bound form of RHOA. The active RHOA is sequestered via SQSTM1/p62 within autolysosomes, and accordingly fails to localize to the spindle midbody or to the cell surface, as we demonstrate herein. As a result, all RHOA-downstream responses are deregulated, thus driving cytokinesis failure, aneuploidy and motility, three processes that directly have an impact upon cancer progression. We therefore propose that autophagy acts as a degradative brake for RHOA signaling and thereby controls cell proliferation, migration, and genome stability. © 2014 Landes Bioscience.

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