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Redini F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Redini F.,Equipe labellisee Ligue contre le Cancer 2012 | Redini F.,University of Monastir | Heymann D.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 3 more authors.
Frontiers in Oncology

Ewing sarcoma is the second most common pediatric bone tumor, with three cases per million worldwide. In clinical terms, Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive, rapidly fatal malignancy that mainly develops not only in osseous sites (85%) but also in extra-skeletal soft tissue. It spreads naturally to the lungs, bones, and bone marrow with poor prognosis in the two latter cases. Bone lesions from primary or secondary (metastases) tumors are characterized by extensive bone remodeling, more often due to osteolysis. Osteoclast activation and subsequent bone resorption are responsible for the clinical features of bone tumors, including pain, vertebral collapse, and spinal cord compression. Based on the "vicious cycle" concept of tumor cells and bone resorbing cells, drugs, which target osteoclasts, may be promising agents as adjuvant setting for treating bone tumors, including Ewing sarcoma. There is also increasing evidence that cellular and molecular protagonists present in the bone microenvironment play a part in establishing a favorable "niche" for tumor initiation and progression. The purpose of this review is to discuss the potential therapeutic value of drugs targeting the bone tumor microenvironment in Ewing sarcoma. The first part of the review will focus on targeting the bone resorbing function of osteoclasts by means of bisphosphonates or drugs blocking the pro-resorbing cytokine receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand. Second, the role of this peculiar hypoxic microenvironment will be discussed in the context of resistance to chemotherapy, escape from the immune system, or neo-angiogenesis. Therapeutic interventions based on these specificities could be then proposed in the context of Ewing sarcoma. © 2015 Redini and Heymann. Source

Georges S.,University | Georges S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Georges S.,University of Nantes | Georges S.,Nantes University Hospital Center | And 46 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer

Background: Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumour in children and adolescents for whom the prognosis remains unfavourable despite treatment protocols that combine chemotherapy and surgery. Metalloproteinases decisively contribute to cancer development and promotion by regulating cell growth, angiogenesis or inflammation. However, their role in osteosarcoma remains still unknown. Methods: A screening of a large panel of metalloproteinases and their inhibitors, carried out in osteolytic (K7M2 and POS-1) or osteoblastic (MOS-J) mouse osteosarcoma models, shows that a member of a family of cell surface metallopeptidases, A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 12 (ADAM12), is highly expressed in the K7M2 and POS-1 cell lines and weakly expressed in the MOS-J cell line. To investigate whether ADAM12, involved in several pathologic conditions characterised by abnormal cell growth, plays a role in osteosarcoma tumour growth, ADAM12 was overexpressed in MOS-J and downregulated in K7M2 cells. Results: In vivo experiments demonstrated that ADAM12 favours tumour growth, leading to a significant modification in animal survival. In vitro assays showed that ADAM12 knockdown in K7M2 cells slows cell proliferation. In addition, the study of microarchitectural parameters, assessed by micro-computed tomography (CT) analysis, showed that ADAM12 favours bone osteolysis, as demonstrated both in an ADAM12 overexpressing (MOS-J) and a knockdown (K7M2) model. Histological analysis showed that ADAM12 inhibited osteoblast activity and therefore enhanced bone resorption. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that ADAM12 expression not only favours tumour growth but also associates enhanced osteolysis with a significant reduction in animal survival, suggesting that ADAM12 could be a new therapeutic target in osteosarcoma.© 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Talbot J.,University | Talbot J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Talbot J.,University of Nantes | Talbot J.,Nantes University Hospital Center | And 47 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease

Ewing's sarcoma (ES) is a primary bone tumor characterized by a chromosomic translocation between the EWS gene and a member of the ETS gene family, mainly FLI1, which leads to an aberrant transcription factor EWS-FLI1 that promotes tumorigenicity. Gap junctions are intercellular channels composed of transmembrane proteins (connexin: Cx), that allow direct intercellular communication between adjacent cells. Numerous studies have shown that tumorigenesis may be associated with a loss of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC).Loss of Cx43 expression was observed at the protein and mRNA levels in ES cell lines compared to those measured in human mesenchymal stem cells. A673 ES cells stably transfected with an shRNA targeting EWS-FLI1 showed an increase in Cx43 expression (at the mRNA, protein and transcriptional levels) and GJIC. In an osteolytic murine model of ES, the overexpression of Cx43 in ES cells dramatically reduced tumor growth, leading to a significant increase in animal survival. In vitro assays showed that Cx43 overexpression increases the p27 level with an associated marked decrease of Rb phosphorylation, consistent with the observed blockade of the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. In addition, the bone microarchitectural parameters, assessed by micro-CT analysis, showed an increased bone volume when Cx43 expression was enhanced. Histological analysis demonstrated that the overexpression of Cx43 in ES tumor cells inhibits osteoclast activity and therefore bone resorption.Our study demonstrated that the loss of Cx43 expression in ES cells plays a crucial role in the development of the primary tumor and the associated bone osteolysis. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

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