Equine Section

Oslo, Norway

Equine Section

Oslo, Norway

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McCoy A.M.,University of Minnesota | Toth F.,University of Minnesota | Dolvik N.I.,Equine Section | Ekman S.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Osteoarthritis and Cartilage | Year: 2013

Background: Osteochondrosis (OC) is a common developmental orthopedic disease affecting both humans and animals. Despite increasing recognition of this disease among children and adolescents, its pathogenesis is incompletely understood because clinical signs are often not apparent until lesions have progressed to end-stage, and examination of cadaveric early lesions is not feasible. In contrast, both naturally-occurring and surgically-induced animal models of disease have been extensively studied, most notably in horses and swine, species in which OC is recognized to have profound health and economic implications. The potential for a translational model of human OC has not been recognized in the existing human literature. Objective: The purpose of this review is to highlight the similarities in signalment, predilection sites and clinical presentation of naturally-occurring OC in humans and animals and to propose a common pathogenesis for this condition across species. Study design: Review. Methods: The published human and veterinary literature for the various manifestations of OC was reviewed. Peer-reviewed original scientific articles and species-specific review articles accessible in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine) were eligible for inclusion. Results: A broad range of similarities exists between OC affecting humans and animals, including predilection sites, clinical presentation, radiographic/MRI changes, and histological appearance of the end-stage lesion, suggesting a shared pathogenesis across species. Conclusion: This proposed shared pathogenesis for OC between species implies that naturally-occurring and surgically-induced models of OC in animals may be useful in determining risk factors and for testing new diagnostic and therapeutic interventions that can be used in humans. © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International.


Olstad K.,Equine Section | Hendrickson E.H.,Equine Section | Ekman S.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Carlson C.S.,University of Minnesota | Dolvik N.I.,Equine Section
Cartilage | Year: 2013

Objective: Describe the local morphological response of the articular-epiphyseal cartilage complex to surgical stab incision in the distal femur of foals, with emphasis on the relationship between growth cartilage injury, enchondral ossification, and repair. Design: Nine foals were induced into general anesthesia at the age of 13 to 15 days. Four full-thickness stab incision defects were created in the cartilage on the lateral aspect of the lateral trochlear ridge of the left distal femur. Follow-up examination was carried out from 1 to 49 days postoperatively, including examination of intact bones, sawed slabs, and histological sections. Results: Incision defects filled with cells displaying fibroblast-, chondrocyte-, and osteoblast-like characteristics, potentially validating the rationale behind the drilling of stable juvenile osteochondritis dissecans lesions in children. Incisions induced necrosis within the cartilage on the margins at all depths of the defects. Sharp dissection may therefore be contraindicated in cartilage repair in young individuals. Incisions caused a focal delay in enchondral ossification in 2 foals, apparently related to the orientation of the incision defect relative to the direction of ossification. Defects became progressively surrounded by subchondral bone, in which granulation tissue containing clasts and foci of osteoblast-like cells was observed. Continued enchondral ossification was therefore likely to result in healing of uncomplicated defects to morphologically normal bone. Conclusions: Epiphyseal growth cartilage injury had the potential to exert a negative effect on enchondral ossification. Enchondral ossification exerted a beneficial effect on repair. This relationship warrants consideration in future studies of cartilage injury and repair within the articular-epiphyseal cartilage complex of all species. © The Author(s) 2013.


PubMed | University of Minnesota, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and Equine Section
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cartilage | Year: 2015

Describe the local morphological response of the articular-epiphyseal cartilage complex to surgical stab incision in the distal femur of foals, with emphasis on the relationship between growth cartilage injury, enchondral ossification, and repair.Nine foals were induced into general anesthesia at the age of 13 to 15 days. Four full-thickness stab incision defects were created in the cartilage on the lateral aspect of the lateral trochlear ridge of the left distal femur. Follow-up examination was carried out from 1 to 49 days postoperatively, including examination of intact bones, sawed slabs, and histological sections.Incision defects filled with cells displaying fibroblast-, chondrocyte-, and osteoblast-like characteristics, potentially validating the rationale behind the drilling of stable juvenile osteochondritis dissecans lesions in children. Incisions induced necrosis within the cartilage on the margins at all depths of the defects. Sharp dissection may therefore be contraindicated in cartilage repair in young individuals. Incisions caused a focal delay in enchondral ossification in 2 foals, apparently related to the orientation of the incision defect relative to the direction of ossification. Defects became progressively surrounded by subchondral bone, in which granulation tissue containing clasts and foci of osteoblast-like cells was observed. Continued enchondral ossification was therefore likely to result in healing of uncomplicated defects to morphologically normal bone.Epiphyseal growth cartilage injury had the potential to exert a negative effect on enchondral ossification. Enchondral ossification exerted a beneficial effect on repair. This relationship warrants consideration in future studies of cartilage injury and repair within the articular-epiphyseal cartilage complex of all species.


PubMed | Equine Section
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Equine veterinary journal | Year: 2012

Many horses demonstrate dynamic collapse of more than one upper respiratory tract (URT) structure during high-speed treadmill videoendoscopy (HSTV).To report the frequency of complex dynamic URT collapse in harness racehorses and determine if an association exists between occurrence of certain disorders.Retrospective study of 99 Standardbreds and Coldblooded trotters that had one or more dynamic URT disorders identified during HSTV between 1998 and 2006. The horses underwent HSTV using a protocol that included periods of free head carriage and poll flexion until fully fatigued. Dynamic abnormalities were classified as: dynamic laryngeal collapse (DLC) associated with poll flexion; axial deviation of the aryepiglottic folds (ADAF); dynamically flaccid epiglottis (FE); caudal palatal instability (PI); intermittent dorsal displacement of the soft palate (iDDSP); pharyngeal collapse (PC); alar fold collapse (AFC) and nasal flutter (NF). Cluster analysis and Fishers exact test was performed between groups. Significance was set at P<0.05.The overall incidence of complex dynamic URT collapse was 69.7%. Axial deviation of the aryepiglottic folds was significantly associated with PI (P<0.0001) and FE (P<0.0001); iDDSP was significantly associated with PI (P = 0.004) only. Dynamic laryngeal collapse associated with poll flexion was significantly associated with FE (P = 0.002). Cluster analysis confirmed strong associations between the above diagnosis groups and weaker associations between others.Caudal PI seems to result in 2 diagnosis groupings: one that leads to ADAF and the other to iDDSP. Dynamic collapse of the margins of the epiglottis was a common finding in this study strongly associated with DLC, PI and ADAF.The associations between certain dynamic diagnoses identified in this study seems best explained as due to local anatomic and functional weaknesses that influence other structures through the Bernouilli principle, rather than being due to a generalised neurological disorder.

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