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Tochigi, Japan

Kitai Y.,Kobe University | Kondo T.,Equine Research Institute | Konishi E.,Kobe University
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2010

A complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) assay was established to measure antibodies to the West Nile virus (WNV) nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) in horses. Sera collected from a WNV-infected horse mediated lysis of WNV NS1-expressing cells in a dose-dependent manner at higher percentages than sera from a Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)-infected horse. The percentages of specific lysis for sera diluted 1:10 to 1:80 were <19.8% (assay cutoff) for almost all of the 100 JEV-infected or uninfected horses tested, in contrast to 55 to 76% in WNV-infected horses. Experimental infection revealed that horses became anti-WNV NS1 antibody positive 10 days after WNV infection. This study demonstrated the utility of this assay for differentiating WNV from JEV infections in horses. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source


Kotoyori Y.,Equine Research Institute | Yokoo N.,The Mutual | Ito K.,Hidaka Horse Breeders Association | Murase H.,Hidaka Training and Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2012

The objective was to assess the optimal procedure for real-time, three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound (US) imaging for assessing the equine fetus during the first half of gestation and the possibility of using 3D US imaging of the equine fetus in clinical applications. Seventeen pregnant mares were examined by 3D US between Days 35 and 180 of gestation. Abdominal and endo-vaginal real-time 3D transducers used in human medicine were used for transrectal and transvaginal examinations, respectively. Images were recorded by both 3D stationary and real-time movies. In a comparison of four methods, transrectal examination with a bulb-shaped abdominal 3D transducer enabled the equine fetus to be clearly visualized, and did not require sedation of the mare. Therefore, this approach was the most suitable procedure for examining equine fetuses during the first half of gestation. Each scan required only a few seconds and an entire examination took <10 min in total. The 3D volume image was easy to restore after the examination and could be rotated to any angle the examiner desired. Fetal surface structures, including the head, body, limbs, and genital tubercle, were observed as 3D images which enabled fetal development to be characterized. For early (Days 60-70), but not later (Days 90-150) periods, 3D ultrasonography was not able to evaluate fetal structure in detail as well as conventional 2D ultrasonography. In conclusion, 3D ultrasonography of the equine fetus was a valuable adjunct to 2D ultrasonography and a convenient modality for more detailed assessment of fetal structures. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


Yamanaka T.,Equine Research Institute
Trends in Glycoscience and Glycotechnology | Year: 2011

Equine influenza A virus (EIV) is one of the most important pathogens in horses because of its high contagiousness. Like other influenza A viruses, EIV binds to the target cells of the host via interaction between its hemagglutinin and the terminal sialic acid of the cell surface receptor. In 2004 in the United States (US), there was an outbreak of respiratory disorders among dogs caused by the interspecies transmission of EIV. The EIV-derived virus has spread rapidly and has likely become enzootic in dogs in the US. This work reviews current knowledge about the pathogenesis and receptor binding characteristics of the EIV and the EIV-derived virus isolated from a diseased dog in the US. ©2011 FCCA. Source


Niwa H.,Equine Research Institute | Lasker B.A.,National Center for Zoonotic
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2010

The mutant prevention concentration (MPC) for ciprofloxacin was determined for two Rhodococcus equi strains. The MPC for both strains was 32 μg/ml, which is above the peak serum concentration of ciprofloxacin obtainable by oral administration in humans. Nine single nucleotide changes corresponding to eight amino acid substitutions in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of DNA gyrase subunits A and B were characterized. Only mutants with amino acid changes in Ser-83 of GyrA were highly resistant (≥64 μg/ml). Our results suggest that ciprofloxacin monotherapy against R. equi infection may result in the emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant mutants. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source


McCue M.E.,University of Minnesota | Bannasch D.L.,University of California at Davis | Petersen J.L.,University of Minnesota | Gurr J.,University of Sydney | And 18 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2012

An equine SNP genotyping array was developed and evaluated on a panel of samples representing 14 domestic horse breeds and 18 evolutionarily related species. More than 54,000 polymorphic SNPs provided an average inter-SNP spacing of ~43 kb. The mean minor allele frequency across domestic horse breeds was 0.23, and the number of polymorphic SNPs within breeds ranged from 43,287 to 52,085. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) in most breeds declined rapidly over the first 50-100 kb and reached background levels within 1-2 Mb. The extent of LD and the level of inbreeding were highest in the Thoroughbred and lowest in the Mongolian and Quarter Horse. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) analyses demonstrated the tight grouping of individuals within most breeds, close proximity of related breeds, and less tight grouping in admixed breeds. The close relationship between the Przewalski's Horse and the domestic horse was demonstrated by pair-wise genetic distance and MDS. Genotyping of other Perissodactyla (zebras, asses, tapirs, and rhinoceros) was variably successful, with call rates and the number of polymorphic loci varying across taxa. Parsimony analysis placed the modern horse as sister taxa to Equus przewalski. The utility of the SNP array in genome-wide association was confirmed by mapping the known recessive chestnut coat color locus (MC1R) and defining a conserved haplotype of ~750 kb across all breeds. These results demonstrate the high quality of this SNP genotyping resource, its usefulness in diverse genome analyses of the horse, and potential use in related species. © 2012 McCue et al. Source

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