Chaney S.B.,Ohio State University |
Marsh A.E.,Ohio State University |
Lewis S.,Ohio State University |
Carman M.,Ohio State University |
And 3 more authors.
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2017
Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) remains a significant central nervous system disease of horses in the American continents. Sarcocystis neurona is considered the primary causative agent and its intermediate life stages are carried by a wide host-range including raccoons (Procyon lotor) in North America. S. neurona sarcocysts mature in raccoon skeletal muscle and can produce central nervous system disease in raccoons, mirroring the clinical presentation in horses. The study aimed to develop laboratory tools whereby the life cycle and various life stages of S. neurona could be better studied and manipulated using in vitro and in vivo systems and compare the biology of two independent isolates. This study utilized culture-derived parasites from S. neurona strains derived from a raccoon or from a horse to initiate raccoon infections. Raccoon tissues, including fresh and cryopreserved tissues, were used to establish opossum (Didelphis virginiana) infections, which then shed sporocyts with retained biological activity to cause encephalitis in mice. These results demonstrate that sarcocysts can be generated using in vitro-derived S. neurona merozoites, including an isolate originally derived from a naturally infected horse with clinical EPM. This study indicates the life cycle can be significantly manipulated in the laboratory without affecting subsequent stage development, allowing further purification of strains and artificial maintenance of the life cycle. © 2017
Pivoto F.L.,Federal University of Santa Maria |
Macedo Junior A.G.D.,Federal University of Uberlandia |
da Silva M.V.,Federal University of Uberlandia |
Ferreira F.B.,Federal University of Uberlandia |
And 5 more authors.
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2014
Protozoa from the family Sarcocystidae are agents of reproductive and neurological disorders in horses. The transmission of these protozoa may occur via horizontal or vertical means, and the frequency and potential of the later is not fully elucidated in horses. Thus, the aim of study was to correlation levels of antibodies in mares with pre colostral foals seropositive and assess the level and distribuition of antibodies against Neospora spp., Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii, in mares and pre colostral foals at the parturition. The blood samples were collected from mares immediately after parturition and from newborns before the ingestion of colostrum, and sera were analyzed for the presence of IgG by ELISA. It was found that 21.5%, 33.7% and 27.6% of mares were seropositive for Neospora spp., S. neurona and T. gondii, respectively; foals had antibodies at a rate of 8.3%, 6.6% and 6.6% for Neospora spp., S. neurona and T. gondii, respectively. Additionally, paired samples from mares and pre-colostral foals revealed an overall negative correlation between the serum reactivity against these three parasites and suggested that seronegative mares, or those with low to intermediate antibody levels, have a higher risk of giving birth to seropositive foals. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Wang D.,Chinese University of Hong Kong |
Wang D.,Interventional Imaging |
Shi L.,Chinese University of Hong Kong |
Shi L.,CUHK Shenzhen Research Institute |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Orthopaedic Research | Year: 2012
Surface-based morphometry method is advantageous in its objectivity and increased capability in detecting focal morphological changes, but has not been applied in bone-related research. Orthopedics research in human has confirmed the association of the bone geometry in proximal femur and its fracture. In this study, surface-based morphometry is used to test the hypothesis that there is relationship between bone geometry and fracture risk of the proximal sesamoid bone (PSB) in forelimbs of Thoroughbred racehorses. The PSB surfaces were extracted from CT images of nonfractured forelegs (i.e., right foreleg in this study) of 6 racehorses with fractures in the contralateral (i.e., left) foreleg, and the right forelegs of 6 matched controls. Significant differences were detected at the abaxial margin of the medial PSB base which was found to be up to 3.5mm more prominent in the fracture-group compared to the control-group. This study demonstrated a successful application of computational morphometry in bone. The detected anatomical differences may lead to a larger moment arm generated via the medial branch of the suspensory apparatus, increasing pressure on the sesamoid surface, and thus potentially predisposing to fracture. Findings from this pilot study not only increase the likelihood of accurate PSB fracture risk assessment, but also shed light on investigating the influence of sports and exercise on human athletes. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.
Shi L.,Interventional Imaging |
Wang D.,Interventional Imaging |
Riggs C.M.,Equine Hospital |
Qin L.,Chinese University of Hong Kong |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Orthopaedic Research | Year: 2011
Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is a computational technique that has been used to analyze statistical differences between groups of MR brain images. This study outlines a new VBM pipeline, designed for determining statistical variation in bone mineral density (BMD). CT images of proximal sesamoid bone (PSB) specimens from the right forelimb of six racehorses that had suffered PSB fractures were compared with six age-matched control specimens. Following segmentation, masked gray-scale images were co-aligned to a statistical template generated with all 12 CT datasets iteratively. Student t-tests were performed voxel-by-voxel on spatially aligned 3D images to reveal significant differences in the spatial variation of bone density between the fracture and control groups. Overall density and densities from the axial and abaxial areas of PSBs were compared between groups. The BMD in abaxial regions of the medial and lateral PSBs of the fracture group were 12.7% (p = 0.044) and 13.5% (p = 0.047) higher, respectively, than controls. The overall mean density of paired PSB and the medial and lateral PSBs separately were higher in the fracture group. The VBM pipeline facilitates detailed comparison of density variation between bone groups at the voxel level. © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Schwarz B.C.,Equine Hospital |
Hoven R.V.D.,Equine Hospital |
Schwendenwein I.,Central Laboratory
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2012
The myeloperoxidase index (MPXI) was investigated as a diagnostic indicator of systemic inflammation in a retrospective study using data from 859 hospitalised horses. A reference interval of 8.5-10.4 for the MPXI was established. In horses with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), the MPXI was significantly lower than in healthy horses, those with localised inflammation and those with sepsis. The MPXI in horses with sepsis was also significantly lower than in healthy animals and those with localised inflammation. Horses in the SIRS group with leucopenia, white blood cell (WBC) count within the reference interval (WRI) or leucocytosis had significantly lower MPXIs than healthy horses, those with localised inflammation and those with sepsis in the same WBC count subgroups. In horses with sepsis and WBC count WRI, the MPXI was significantly lower than in healthy horses or those with localised inflammation. MPXI is a useful complementary tool to identify horses with systemic inflammation, especially if they have WBC counts WRI. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Yeh J.-Y.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service |
Lee J.-H.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service |
Park J.-Y.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service |
Seo H.-J.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service |
And 8 more authors.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases | Year: 2012
The detection of West Nile virus (WNV) in areas endemic for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is complicated by the extensive serological cross-reactivity between the two viruses. A testing algorithm was developed and employed for the detection of anti-WNV antibody in areas endemic for JEV. Using this differentiation algorithm, a serological survey of poultry (2004 through 2009) and horses (2007 through 2009) was performed. Among 2681 poultry sera, 125 samples were interpreted as being positive for antibodies against JEV, and 14 were suspected to be positive for antibodies against undetermined flaviviruses other than WNV and JEV. Of the 2601 horse sera tested, a total of 1914 (73.6%) were positive to the initial screening test. Of these positive sera, 132 sera (5.1%) had been collected from horses that had been imported from the United States, where WNV is endemic. These horses had WNV vaccination records, and no significant pattern of increasing titer was observed in paired sera tests. Of the remaining 1782 positive sera 1468 sera (56.4%) were also found to contain anti-JEV antibodies, and were interpreted to be JEV-specific antibodies by the differentiation algorithm developed in this study. The remaining 314 horses (12.1%) for which a fourfold difference in neutralizing antibody titer could not be demonstrated, were determined to contain an antibody against an unknown (unidentified or undetermined) flavivirus. No evidence of WNV infections were found during the period of this study. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2012.
Ho E.N.M.,Racing Laboratory Hong Kong Jockey Club |
Kwok W.H.,Racing Laboratory Hong Kong Jockey Club |
Leung D.K.K.,Racing Laboratory Hong Kong Jockey Club |
Riggs C.M.,Equine Hospital |
And 4 more authors.
Drug Testing and Analysis | Year: 2015
Testosterone is an endogenous steroid produced primarily in the testes. Trace levels of testosterone are found in urine samples from geldings, as testosterone is also secreted by the adrenal. An international threshold of free and conjugated testosterone in urine (20ng/mL) was adopted by the International Federation of Horseracing Authorities (IFHA) in 1996 for controlling testosterone misuse in geldings. In view of the recent popularity of using blood in doping control testing, it is necessary to establish a threshold for testosterone in gelding plasma. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method was developed for quantifying low levels of free testosterone in gelding plasma. Based on a population study of 152 post-race plasma samples, the mean±SD concentration of plasma testosterone was determined to be 14.7±6.8pg/mL. Normal distribution could be obtained after square-root or cube-root transformation, resulting in respective tentative thresholds of 49 or 55pg/mL (corresponding to a risk factor of less than 1 in 10 000). A rounded-up threshold of 100pg/mL of free testosterone in plasma was proposed. Based on the administration of Testosterone Suspension 100 to six geldings, the same average detection time of 14days was observed in either plasma or urine using the proposed plasma threshold and the existing international urine threshold. The maximum detection time was 18days in plasma and 20days in urine. The results demonstrated the proposed plasma threshold is effective in controlling the misuse of testosterone in geldings. Similar results were subsequently obtained in Europe, and this proposed threshold was adopted by IFHA in October 2013. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Marques F.J.,University of Saskatchewan |
Waldner C.,University of Saskatchewan |
Reed S.,Equine Hospital |
Corbeil L.,University of Saskatchewan |
Campbell J.,University of Saskatchewan
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research | Year: 2014
The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether rider experience influences the assessment and grading of lameness in horses based on under-saddle gait analysis. Thirteen adult sports horses in active training were included in the study. After a baseline lameness and neurologic examination by the principal investigators, horses were videotaped while being ridden by an experienced and a less experienced rider. A 3-minute video was made for each horse and rider and 26 videos were randomly ordered and compiled on a DVD. Veterinarians with different levels of experience in evaluating lameness and veterinary students viewed the DVD and assigned a lameness score to each horse/rider combination. In a model accounting for the expertise of the evaluator, there was no difference in overall lameness scores between experienced and less experienced riders. This result was consistent for both sound and unsound horses. The overall lameness scores reported by specialists and students, however, differed significantly. The lameness score reported by the study participants while the horse was ridden was significantly associated with the subjective baseline lameness assessment reported by the principal investigators for the same limb when the horse was not under saddle. Additional work is necessary to determine whether riders with even lower skill levels would further alter the balance and motion pattern of the horse and have more influence on subjective grading of lameness.
Marycz K.,Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences |
Toker N.Y.,Istanbul University |
Grzesiak J.,Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences |
Wrzeszcz K.,Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences |
Golonka P.,Equine Hospital
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2012
Naturally, occurring tendons injuries including superficial digital flexor tendinopathy are the most frequent musculoskeletal disorders in performance horses. Conventional methods of treatment with non steroidal and steroidal anti-inflammatory medicaments in majority of cases lead to scar formation, reducing the quality and efficiency of tissue regeneration. Novel approach is aimed to use cells naturally present in an organism as regeneration enhancing factor. In conducted research, the intralesional injections of autologous adipose derived stem cells combined with autologous platelet concentrate therapeutic potential was investigated in horses with 8-12 weeks duration superficial digital flexor injury with severe scaring. Collected by clinical examinations data showed positive effects of autologous, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells combined with autologous platelet rich plasma injections on regeneration processes in the course of superficial flexor tendon injures in horses. On the basis of ultrasound examination, it was proved that the quality of healed tissue was significantly higher in experimental group, comparing to control group. Obtained results confirmed the beneficial pro-regeneration effects of stem cells/platelet concentrate combined injections. The obtained data may also serve as valuable source of information about morphology and behaviour of fat stem cells in culture or platelets appearance. © Medwell Journals, 2012.
PubMed | Equine Hospital
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997) | Year: 2012
The myeloperoxidase index (MPXI) was investigated as a diagnostic indicator of systemic inflammation in a retrospective study using data from 859 hospitalised horses. A reference interval of 8.5-10.4 for the MPXI was established. In horses with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), the MPXI was significantly lower than in healthy horses, those with localised inflammation and those with sepsis. The MPXI in horses with sepsis was also significantly lower than in healthy animals and those with localised inflammation. Horses in the SIRS group with leucopenia, white blood cell (WBC) count within the reference interval (WRI) or leucocytosis had significantly lower MPXIs than healthy horses, those with localised inflammation and those with sepsis in the same WBC count subgroups. In horses with sepsis and WBC count WRI, the MPXI was significantly lower than in healthy horses or those with localised inflammation. MPXI is a useful complementary tool to identify horses with systemic inflammation, especially if they have WBC counts WRI.