Equine Clinic

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Equine Clinic

Australia
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Verwilghen D.R.,Equine Clinic | Mastrocicco E.,Equine Clinic | Hamaide A.,Small Animal Clinic | van Galen G.,Equine Clinic | And 2 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2011

Recent studies have shown that hydro-alcoholic solutions are more efficient than traditional medicated soaps in the pre-surgical hand antisepsis of human surgeons but there is little veterinary literature on the subject. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of medicated soaps and a hydro-alcoholic solution prior to surgery using an in-use testing method in a veterinary setting. A preliminary trial was performed that compared the mean log 10 number of bacterial colony forming units (CFU) and the reduction factors (RF) between two 5-min hand-scrubbing sessions using different soaps, namely, povidone iodine (PVP) and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), and the 1.5-min application of a hydro-alcoholic rub.A clinical in-use trial was then used to compare the hydro-alcoholic rub and CHX in a surgical setting. Sampling was performed using finger printing on agar plates. The hydro-alcoholic rub and CHX had a similar immediate effect, although the sustained effect was significantly better for the hydro-alcoholic rub, while PVP had a significantly lower immediate and sustained effect. The hydro-alcoholic rub showed good efficiency in the clinical trial and could be considered as a useful alternative method for veterinary surgical hand antisepsis. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | University Utrecht, Foundation Medicine, Equine horse clinic and Ghent University
Type: | Journal: Equine veterinary journal | Year: 2016

Aortic rupture is quite common in Friesian horses unlike in Warmblood horses and a hereditary trait is suspected in Friesians. The aortic connective tissue in affected Friesians shows histological changes such as medial necrosis, elastic fibre fragmentation, mucoid material accumulation and fibrosis with aberrant collagen morphology. However, ultrastructural examination of the collagen fibres of the mid-thoracic aorta was inconclusive when trying to further elucidate the pathogenesis of the disease.To assess several extracellular matrix (ECM) components biochemically in order to explore a possible underlying breed-related systemic ECM defect in Friesians with aortic rupture.Cadaver study.Tissues from affected Friesians (n = 18) were compared with unaffected Friesians (n = 10) and unaffected Friesians with Warmblood horses (n = 30). Samples were taken from the thoracic aorta at the level of the rupture site, from two locations caudal to the rupture and from the deep digital flexor tendon. Total collagen content, posttranslational modifications of collagen formation including lysine hydroxylation, and hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), lysylpyridinoline (LP) and pyrrole cross-links were analysed. Additionally, elastin cross-links, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity were assessed.Significantly increased MMP activity and increased LP and HP cross-linking, lysine hydroxylation, and elastin cross-linking were found at the site of rupture in affected Friesians. These changes may reflect processes involved in healing and aneurysm formation. Unaffected Friesians had less lysine hydroxylation and pyrrole cross-linking within the tendons compared to Warmblood horses. No differences in the matrix of the aorta were found between normal Warmbloods and Friesian horses.Small sample size.The differences in collagen parameters in tendon tissue may reflect differences in connective tissue metabolism between Friesians and Warmblood horses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


Hildebrand F.,Equine Clinic | Venner M.,Veterinary Clinic | Giguere S.,University of Georgia
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: Gamithromycin is active in vitro against the bacterial agents most commonly associated with bronchopneumonia in older foals. However, the clinical efficacy and safety of this drug have not been investigated. Hypothesis: Gamithromycin is effective for the treatment of bronchopneumonia in foals. Animals: One hundred and twenty-one foals on a farm endemic for infections caused by Rhodococcus equi. Methods: In a controlled, randomized, and double blinded clinical trial, foals with ultrasonographic evidence of pulmonary abscesses (abscess score 8.0-20 cm) were randomly allocated in 3 treatment groups: (1) gamithromycin IM q7 days (n = 40); (2) azithromycin with rifampin, PO q24h (n = 40); or (3) no antimicrobial treatment (controls; n = 41). Physical examination and thoracic ultrasonography were performed by individuals unaware of treatment group assignment. Foals that worsened were removed from the study. Results: The proportion of foals that recovered without the need to be removed from the study was significantly higher for foals treated with gamithromycin (38 of 40) or azithromycin with rifampin (39 of 40) than for controls (32 of 41). Treatment with gamithromycin or with azithromycin-rifampin resulted in a significantly faster decrease in the clinical score and abscess score compared to the controls. Adverse reactions characterized by colic (n = 18) and hind limb lameness (n = 14) were observed only in foals treated with gamithromycin. Conclusion and Clinical Importance: Gamithromycin was noninferior to azithromycin with rifampin for the treatment of bronchopneumonia in the study population but had a higher frequency of adverse reactions. © 2015 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.


Venner M.,Veterinary Clinic | Rodiger A.,Equine Clinic | Laemmer M.,Veterinary Clinic | Giguere S.,University of Georgia
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2012

Mass antimicrobial treatment of foals with small ultrasonographic pulmonary lesions is common on farms with endemic disease caused by Rhodococcus equi. The objectives of this study were to compare the relative efficacy of three antimicrobial protocols for the treatment of pulmonary abscesses on a farm with endemic infections caused by R. equi and to determine the frequency of spontaneous resolution of subclinical pulmonary lesions. Foals with ultrasonographic evidence of pulmonary abscesses ≥1.0. cm in diameter (n= 128) were randomly allocated to one of four equal treatment groups. Animals with respiratory distress or severe pulmonary lesions were excluded from the study. Treatment groups consisted of: (1) tulathromycin intramuscularly; (2) azithromycin monotherapy orally; (3) azithromycin in combination with rifampin orally; and (4) glucose orally as a placebo. Physical examination, thoracic ultrasonography and white blood cell (WBC) counts were performed weekly by individuals unaware of treatment group assignment. Foals that worsened were removed from the study and treated with azithromycin and rifampin. Overall, 14/32 (43.8%) foals in the placebo group recovered without the need for therapy. The proportion of foals that responded to the initial therapy, the duration of therapy, the kinetics of ultrasonographic lesion resolution, the proportion of foals that had to be removed from the study and the number of days to removal from the study did not differ significantly between treatment groups. The study showed that many foals with pulmonary abscesses recover without antimicrobial therapy. Moreover, treatment of sub-clinically affected foals with antimicrobial agents did not significantly hasten recovery. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Muller J.-M.V.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | Feige K.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | Wunderlin P.,Equine Clinic | Hodl A.,University of Nottingham | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Immunotherapy | Year: 2011

Melanoma is a disease with high incidence in gray horses and has limited therapeutic options in metastatic disease. Gene therapy has shown some success in animal models and human patients. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to investigate 2 treatment options using cytokine-encoding plasmid DNA in horses with metastatic melanoma to induce immunologic antitumor effects. Adult gray horses with spontaneously occurring metastatic melanoma (n=26) were included in the study. Treatment of 26 gray horses with metastatic melanoma consisted of interleukin-18-encoding plasmid DNA, interleukin-12-encoding plasmid DNA, or empty plasmid DNA (control group), injected intratumorally, respectively. Tumor response was assessed using ultrasound and caliper measurements and histologic assessment of tumor biopsies. Significant tumor regression could be shown in both the treatment groups receiving IL-18 and IL-12-encoding plasmid DNA whereas placebo-treated control patients showed tumor growth over the course of the treatment. In addition, 7 of 10 tumors from horses treated with IL-18 or IL-12 showed peritumoral and/or intratumoral inflammatory infiltrates after treatment compared with 1 of the 6 in the control group. The treatment as assessed by serial blood draws and clinical investigation, was safe and well tolerated. These data suggest that the intratumoral treatment with IL-18 and IL-12-encoding plasmid DNA has antitumor effects, which is well tolerated and thus holds promise for the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma. © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


PubMed | Equine Clinic
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Equine veterinary journal | Year: 2013

Few reports are available on the relationship between developmental orthopaedic diseases (DOD) and future performances in Warmblood horses.To investigate the relationship between performance and the presence of DOD lesions.Records of Warmblood stallions for which radiographic and performance data were available were collected. Showjumping performances were expressed as scores derived from the final ranking of horses in each competition. These scores are available in an established performance database. The relationship between radiographic findings and both performance scores and number of performances was analysed using a linear regression model.Two hundred and fifteen horses met the inclusion criteria. There was no difference in either the number of performances or performance score between horses categorised as affected with DOD lesions (independent of joint location) compared with controls. Significantly lower numbers of performances were recorded for horses with osteochondral fragments (OCD) located at the dorsal aspect of the sagittal ridge of the metacarpo/metatarsophalangeal bone. No significant difference was found between horses affected with DOD lesions of the tarsocrural joint and controls. Horses with osteochondrosis of the lateral trochlear ridge of the femur had both significantly lower performance scores and numbers of performances compared with controls.This study demonstrated that specific DOD location and site within the joint have an influence on performance. Osteochondral fragments in the femoropatellar and at the dorsal aspect of the sagittal ridge of the metacarpo/metatarsophalangeal joint resulted in lowered performance. Fragmentation in the tarsocrural joint had no influence on performance.The future athletic performance of Warmblood jumping horses may be limited as a result of OCD in the femoropatellar joint and to a certain extent the metacarpo/metatarsophalangeal joint.


PubMed | Equine Clinic
Type: Clinical Trial | Journal: Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997) | Year: 2011

Recent studies have shown that hydro-alcoholic solutions are more efficient than traditional medicated soaps in the pre-surgical hand antisepsis of human surgeons but there is little veterinary literature on the subject. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of medicated soaps and a hydro-alcoholic solution prior to surgery using an in-use testing method in a veterinary setting. A preliminary trial was performed that compared the mean log(10) number of bacterial colony forming units (CFU) and the reduction factors (RF) between two 5-min hand-scrubbing sessions using different soaps, namely, povidone iodine (PVP) and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), and the 1.5-min application of a hydro-alcoholic rub. A clinical in-use trial was then used to compare the hydro-alcoholic rub and CHX in a surgical setting. Sampling was performed using finger printing on agar plates. The hydro-alcoholic rub and CHX had a similar immediate effect, although the sustained effect was significantly better for the hydro-alcoholic rub, while PVP had a significantly lower immediate and sustained effect. The hydro-alcoholic rub showed good efficiency in the clinical trial and could be considered as a useful alternative method for veterinary surgical hand antisepsis.


PubMed | Equine Clinic
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Tijdschrift voor diergeneeskunde | Year: 2010

Persistent Meckels diverticulum is an uncommon embryonic developmental anomaly of the distal small intestine created by a portion of the vitelline duct adjacent to intestine that remains patent. This portion can form a diverticulum (Meckels diverticulum) or a fibrous band, called vitelloumbilical band, and can be associated with colic after local impaction or strangulation of the small intestine around the remnant. This report describes two cases of Meckels diverticulum with different morphological features in older horses. This congenital disorder should be considered as a reason for abdominal pain, even in the older horse, and should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain and recurrent moderate colic.


PubMed | Equine Clinic
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary research communications | Year: 2011

The measurement of biomarkers that reflect cartilage breakdown is a powerful tool for investigating joint damage caused by disease or injury. Particularly in cases of osteochondrosis, synovial concentrations of these biomarkers may reveal the presence of osteoarthritic changes. Coll2-1, Coll2-1 NO2 and myeloperoxidase have recently been introduced in equine osteoarticular research but comparison between the concentrations of these markers in OCD affected and healthy joints has not been made. Therefore, this study aimed at reporting the synovial concentrations of these biomarkers in joints affected with osteochondral fragments in the tarsocrural joint compared to unaffected joints. Myeloperoxidase and Coll2-1NO2 revealed to have similar levels between affected joints and controls. However, in contrast to previous studies using C2C the present study demonstrated that synovial levels of Coll2-1 were significantly elevated in tarsocrural joints affected with osteochondrosis. Thus, Coll2-1 may be an earlier marker of cartilage degeneration than other cartilage degradation markers that have been previously used in equine medicine.

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