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Airaksinen M.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Vuolle M.,Equa Simulation Finland Oy
Energies | Year: 2013

Building energy efficiency legislation has traditionally focused on space heating energy consumption. This has led to a decrease in energy consumption, especially in space heating. However, in the future when more renewable energy is used both on site and in energy systems, the peak energy demand becomes more important with respect to CO2 emissions and energy security. In this study it was found out the difference between space heating energy consumption was 55%-62% when a low energy and standard building were compared. However, the difference in peak energy demands was only 28%-34%, showing the importance of paying attention to the peak demands as well. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source


Rimpilainen J.,Arctech Helsinki Shipyard Oy | Nallikari M.,Arctech Helsinki Shipyard Oy | Alanne K.,Aalto University | Palonen M.,Aalto University | Vuolle M.,Equa Simulation Finland Oy
Proceedings of the International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions, POAC | Year: 2013

In this study, the most cost effective solutions for insulation thickness, types of windows, wall panels and the ventilation heat recovery are found using a dynamic IDA-ICE-simulation program and a genetic algorithm, with the aim at maximizing the thermal comfort in deckhouse of an icebreaker. The final result is a design concept that provides recommendations and guidelines for energy effective superstructure in cold circumstances. The results suggest that 38 % energy saving potential (101kWh/m2) in overall thermal consumption, 39 % emission reduction and 26% decrease in predicted percentage dissatisfied (PPD) can be obtained in deckhouse areas. Source


Kurnitski J.,Tallinn University of Technology | Saari A.,Aalto University | Kalamees T.,Tallinn University of Technology | Vuolle M.,Equa Simulation Finland Oy | And 2 more authors.
Estonian Journal of Engineering | Year: 2013

Estonian cost optimal and nearly zero energy building (nZEB) energy performance levels were determined for the reference detached house, apartment and office building. Cost optimal energy performance levels, i.e. the energy performance leading to the lowest life cycle cost according to defined methodology, are implemented into new Estonian energy performance regulation as minimum requirements for new buildings. The regulation that came into force since 9 January 2013 includes requirements for nZEB buildings, but they are not mandatory. Compared to previous requirements, cost optimal requirements improve energy performance by 20%-40% depending on the building type and energy sources used. The results of the reference office and apartment building are reported. The results of the reference detached house, being previously reported, have been recalculated with new energy carrier factor for electricity, which was one major change in the regulation in addition to new requirements. When the detached house showed global cost curves with well-established cost optimal points, global cost curves were much more flat for the apartment and office building. This indicates that the results are sensitive to input data and relatively small changes in input data can significantly shift the cost optimal points. As uncertainties related to nZEB performance level and cost calculation are generally much higher due to high performance technical solutions not commonly used and costs not well established, it is recommended to repeat nZEB calculations with possibly refined input data before setting mandatory nZEB requirements. Source


Kurnitski J.,Sitra | Saari A.,Aalto University | Kalamees T.,Tallinn University of Technology | Vuolle M.,Equa Simulation Finland Oy | And 2 more authors.
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2011

This study determined cost optimal and nearly zero energy building (nZEB) energy performance levels following the REHVA definition and energy calculation methodology for nZEB national implementation. Cost optimal performance levels - meaning the energy performance leading to minimum life cycle cost - were calculated with net present value method according to the cost optimal draft regulation. The seven-step procedure was developed to conduct cost optimal and nZEB energy performance levels calculations in systematic and robust scientific fashion. It was shown that cost optimal primary energy use can be calculated with limited number of energy simulations as only four construction concepts were simulated and cost calculated. The procedure includes the specification of building envelope components based on specific heat loss coefficient and systems calculation with post processing of energy simulation results, without the need to use iterative approach or optimization algorithm. Model calculations were conducted for Estonian reference detached house to analyse the difference between the cost optimal and nZEB energy performance levels. Cost optimal energy performance level of Estonian reference detached house was 110 kW h/(m 2 a) primary energy including all energy use with domestic appliances and it was significantly lower than the current minimum requirement of 180 kW h/(m2 a). © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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