Montpellier, France
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Bortolon C.,Epsylon Laboratory | Bortolon C.,Montpellier University Hospital Center | Laroi F.,University of Liège | Stephan Y.,Epsylon Laboratory | And 8 more authors.
Psychiatry Research | Year: 2014

This study explored the mediation effect of metacognitive beliefs on the relationship between intrusive thoughts and emotional distress in schizophrenia (N=49) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (N=35). Intrusive thoughts impact on anxiety and depression through beliefs about uncontrollability and danger of thoughts in schizophrenia. Negative beliefs in general mediated the effect of intrusive thoughts on anxiety in obsessive-compulsive disorder. The results suggest that metacognitive beliefs may be a vulnerability factor for emotional and psychological disorder. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Bortolon C.,Epsylon Laboratory | Bortolon C.,Montpellier University Hospital Center | Capdevielle D.,Montpellier University Hospital Center | Capdevielle D.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 4 more authors.
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2016

Self-face recognition has been shown to be impaired in schizophrenia (SZ), according to studies using behavioral tasks implicating cognitive demands. Here, we employed an eye-tracking methodology, which is a relevant tool to understand impairments in self-face recognition deficits in SZ because it provides a natural, continuous and online record of face processing. Moreover, it allows collecting the most relevant and informative features each individual looks at during the self-face recognition. These advantages are especially relevant considering the fundamental role played by the patterns of visual exploration on face processing. Thus, this paper aims to investigate self-face recognition deficits in SZ using eye-tracking methodology. Visual scan paths were monitored in 20 patients with SZ and 20 healthy controls. Self, famous, and unknown faces were morphed in steps of 20%. Location, number, and duration of fixations on relevant areas were recorded with an eye-tracking system. Participants performed a passive exploration task (no specific instruction was provided), followed by an active decision making task (individuals were explicitly requested to recognize the different faces). Results showed that patients with SZ had fewer and longer fixations compared to controls. Nevertheless, both groups focused their attention on relevant facial features in a similar way. No significant difference was found between groups when participants were requested to recognize the faces (active task). In conclusion, using an eye tracking methodology and two tasks with low levels of cognitive demands, our results suggest that patients with SZ are able to: (1) explore faces and focus on relevant features of the face in a similar way as controls; and (2) recognize their own face. © 2016 Bortolon, Capdevielle, Salesse and Raffard.


Bortolon C.,Epsylon Laboratory | Bortolon C.,Montpellier University Hospital Center | Louche A.,Epsylon Laboratory | Gely-Nargeot M.-C.,Epsylon Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Experimental Gerontology | Year: 2015

Face perception depends both on the face and on the individual who perceives it. Some factors such as gender, ethnicity or age may influence face perception processing. For instance, recognition memory for faces of one's own age group is often superior to memory for other-age group faces. This bias is known as the Own-Age-Bias (OAB). OAB has been extensively studied in healthy subjects. However, to our knowledge, no article has been published on elder adults suffering from Alzheimer Disease (AD). Therefore, the present research aimed at studying the OAB in patients with AD in comparison with healthy old adults and healthy young adults. Sixty participants were included: 20 young adults, 20 healthy old adults, and 20 elder patients who met NINCDS-ADRDA criteria for probable AD. Participants performed an age estimation task followed by a face recognition task. Indeed, for each photograph, subjects were asked to say if the face looked young or old and to give a yes/no judgment of familiarity (after an encoding phase). Participants also completed a questionnaire assessing their frequency of contact with young and old adults.Although estimates of sensitivity indicated no age bias in AD patients, when memory bias was corrected according to their performance we found evidence in favor of an OAB in this group. Both healthy groups presented an OAB, in particular when the corrected memory bias was considered. However, no significant correlations were found between their frequency of contact with young/older people and the number of correctly identified faces, false alarms, sensitivity and corrected memory bias. Therefore, although AD patients present a deficit in face-memory, they still present memory bias towards same-age group faces when their difficulties in face memory are controlled. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Bortolon C.,Epsylon Laboratory | Bortolon C.,Montpellier University Hospital Center | Capdevielle D.,Montpellier University Hospital Center | Capdevielle D.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry | Year: 2016

Background Although some studies reported specifically self-face processing deficits in patients with schizophrenia disorder (SZ), it remains unclear whether these deficits rather reflect a more global face processing deficit. Contradictory results are probably due to the different methodologies employed and the lack of control of other confounding factors. Moreover, no study has so far evaluated possible daily life self-face recognition difficulties in SZ. Therefore, our primary objective was to investigate self-face recognition in patients suffering from SZ compared to healthy controls (HC) using an "objective measure" (reaction time and accuracy) and a "subjective measure" (self-report of daily self-face recognition difficulties). Method Twenty-four patients with SZ and 23 HC performed a self-face recognition task and completed a questionnaire evaluating daily difficulties in self-face recognition. Recognition task material consisted in three different faces (the own, a famous and an unknown) being morphed in steps of 20%. Results Results showed that SZ were overall slower than HC regardless of the face identity, but less accurate only for the faces containing 60%-40% morphing. Moreover, SZ and HC reported a similar amount of daily problems with self/other face recognition. No significant correlations were found between objective and subjective measures (p > 0.05). Limitations The small sample size and relatively mild severity of psychopathology does not allow us to generalize our results. Conclusions These results suggest that: (1) patients with SZ are as capable of recognizing their own face as HC, although they are susceptible to ambiguity; (2) there are far less self recognition deficits in schizophrenia patients than previously postulated. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Bortolon C.,Epsylon Laboratory | Capdevielle D.,Montpellier University Hospital Center | Boulenger J.-P.,Montpellier University Hospital Center | Gely-Nargeot M.-C.,Epsylon Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Psychiatry Research | Year: 2013

Recent literature has shown the role of social factors, such as childhood negative experiences and attachment styles, in the genesis of psychotic symptoms. So far, despite this association with childhood negative experiences and a wide range of psychiatric disorders, no study has yet attempted to assess early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) in patients with schizophrenia as primary diagnosis. A sample of 48 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 44 control participants answered the schema questionnaire short form's French validation, and were assessed with the positive and negative syndrome scale as well as a scale of depression symptomatology. Results showed that, after controlling for depression, patients with schizophrenia achieved higher scores than control subjects on six EMSs. The EMSs were associated with positive, but not negative, symptomatology. After controlling for depression, only the Mistrust/Abuse schema was a significant predictor of positive symptoms accounting for a small portion (12.4%) of the variance. The results highlight the importance of focusing not only on the schizophrenic symptoms but also on the person and his or her subjective development of self. Therefore, these results suggest that Young's schema theory may be applied to schizophrenic patients. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


PubMed | Epsylon Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Canadian journal on aging = La revue canadienne du vieillissement | Year: 2011

To explore the predictive value of cognitive and coping resources for problem- and emotion-focused coping with age, we collected data from community-dwelling adults between 20 and 90 years old. We hypothesized that age, perceived stress, self-efficacy, working-memory capacity, and mental flexibility were predictors of coping. We collected data using French versions of the Perceived Stress Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale, and Way of Coping Checklist. Cognitive assessments comprised the WAIS III digit-span subtest and the Trail Making Test parts A and B. In multivariate analyses, neither working-memory nor mental-flexibility deficit predicted problem-focused coping. Age was found to predict only problem-focused coping. Self-efficacy predicted problem-focused coping, and perceived stress predicted emotion-focused coping. Our results confirmed that use of an emotion-focused coping style would not significantly change with age. Problem-focused coping increases with age and depends primarily on participants confidence in their ability to successfully solve problems (i.e., self-efficacy).


PubMed | Epsylon Laboratory, Montpellier University Hospital Center and University of Liège
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Psychiatry research | Year: 2014

This study explored the mediation effect of metacognitive beliefs on the relationship between intrusive thoughts and emotional distress in schizophrenia (N=49) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (N=35). Intrusive thoughts impact on anxiety and depression through beliefs about uncontrollability and danger of thoughts in schizophrenia. Negative beliefs in general mediated the effect of intrusive thoughts on anxiety in obsessive-compulsive disorder. The results suggest that metacognitive beliefs may be a vulnerability factor for emotional and psychological disorder.

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