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Palo Alto, CA, United States

The Electric Power Research Institute conducts research on issues related to the electric power industry in USA. EPRI is a nonprofit organization funded by the electric utility industry, founded and headquartered in Palo Alto, California. EPRI is primarily a US-based organization, but receives international participation. EPRI's area covers different aspects of electric power generation, delivery and its use.Following Senate hearings in the early 1970s on the lack of R&D supporting the power industry, all sectors of the U.S. electricity industry pooled their funds to begin an industry-wide collaborative R&D program. EPRI was established in 1973 as the Electric Power Research Institute. Created as an independent, nonprofit organization designed to manage a broad public-private collaborative research program on behalf of the electric utility industry, the industry’s customers, and society at large. EPRI’s creation was a recognition of the impact of electricity on modern life. The institute's research and development program spans every aspect of generation, environmental protection, power delivery, retail use, and power markets. EPRI provides services to more than 1000 energy-related organizations in 40 countries. It has more than 900 patents to its credit.EPRI laid the groundwork in the 1970s for the use of power electronics in the utility system, sometimes known as FACTS , established the largest electric and magnetic fields health program in the world and has played a role in resolving scientific questions concerning potential links to cancer. EPRI is in the Advisory Council of the PHEV Research Center and created the world’s largest center for nondestructive testing, used first for nuclear inspection and now increasingly for internal diagnostics of fossil power plants and industrial systems. Wikipedia.

Parker J.,EPRI
International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping | Year: 2014

In Creep Strength Enhanced Ferritic steels control of both composition and heat treatment of the parent steel is necessary to avoid producing components which have properties below the minimum expected by applicable codes. The degree of tempering involved in manufacture will modify the material hardness. While under most conditions hardness is reduced by tempering, exceeding the AC1 temperature can lead to an increase in hardness. In this heat treatment the properties will be relatively poor even though the measured hardness may be apparently acceptable. Thus, care should be exercised in imposing an acceptance test of components based on simple hardness alone.Differences in parent material heat treatment and composition apparently have remarkably little influence on the creep life of the heat affect zone (HAZ). Thus, Type IV cracking in the fine grained or intercritically heat treated regions of the HAZ does not appear to directly depend on the strength of the base steel. This form of in-service damage is relatively difficult to detect using traditional methods of non-destructive testing. Moreover, since repeated heat treatment leads to over tempering and a degradation of properties, specific procedures for making and then lifing repair welds are required. The present paper summarizes examples of damage and discusses best option repairs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Short T.A.,EPRI
IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid | Year: 2013

Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) offers utilities new ways to model and analyze distribution circuits. Results from two circuits introduce a new method to identify phasing of transformers and single-phase taps using voltage and kilowatt-hour measurements from AMI. In addition to phase identification, we show how to use the same approach to create or check meter-to-transformer mappings. These algorithms are based on linear regression and basic voltage drop relationships. With this approach, secondary connectivity and impedance models can be auto generated. In addition, detection of unmetered load appears possible. Also demonstrated is use of AMI to estimate primary-side voltage profiles. © 2010-2012 IEEE. Source

Lubowski R.N.,Chief Natural Resource Economist | Rose S.K.,EPRI
Review of Environmental Economics and Policy | Year: 2013

This article takes stock of economic modeling tools and findings related to reducing greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation as well as other forestry activities in developing countries (REDD+), and discusses priorities for future research. The economics literature has identified opportunities for significant cost-effective climate change mitigation from both reducing deforestation and enhancing forest carbon stocks. Several studies estimate that including REDD+ could reduce the costs of achieving climate policy goals over both the near and longer terms. Studies also suggest that the near-term potential for REDD+, especially reduced deforestation, could be valuable in support of near-term emissions reduction strategies, hedging against uncertainties, and dampening future carbon market price volatility. However, the literature is evolving. Most early and many recent studies of REDD+ provide optimistic benchmark estimates, based on ideal, but unrealistic, assumptions about policies and institutions. The more recent literature, which analyzes dynamics; interactions among forestry activities, regions, and economic sectors; implementation requirements and costs; policy designs; and uncertainties suggests a more limited and nuanced mitigation role for REDD+, especially in the near future. There are also important modeling challenges. Together, these real-world complexities and modeling challenges indicate that the actual costs and net environmental benefits of potential REDD+ activities are uncertain and highly dependent on policy and implementation features. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists. All rights reserved. Source

Adapa R.,EPRI
IEEE Power and Energy Magazine | Year: 2012

Developed to meet a combination of technical and economic considerations, high-voltage dc (HV dc) was launched in 1954 with the first commercial transmission link between the island of Gotland and the Swedish mainland. Since then, HV dc technology has advanced dramatically, and more than 100 HV dc transmission systems have been installed around the world. © 2003-2012 IEEE. Source

Parker J.,EPRI
International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping | Year: 2013

In creep strength enhanced ferritic steels, such as Grade 91 and Grade 92, control of both composition and heat treatment of the parent steel is necessary to avoid producing components which have creep strength below the minimum expected by applicable ASME and other International Codes. These efforts are required to ensure that the steel develops a homogeneous fully tempered martensitic microstructure, with the appropriate distribution of precipitates and the required dislocation substructure. In-service creep related problems with Grade 91 steel have been reported associated with factors such as incorrect microstructure and heat treatment, welded connections in headers and piping, dissimilar metal welds as well as the manufacture and performance of castings. Difficulties associated with remediation of in-service damage include challenges over detection and removal of damaged material as well as the selection and qualification of appropriate methodologies for repair. Since repeated heat treatment leads to continued tempering, and a potential degradation of properties, specific procedures for performing and then lifing repair welds are a key aspect of Asset Management. This paper presents a summary of in-service experience with Grade 91 steel and outlines approaches for repair welding. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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