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Bonants P.,Wageningen University | Streito J.-C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Elphinstone J.,Fera | Pottier P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 6 more authors.
EPPO Bulletin | Year: 2016

The ability of National Plant Protection Organizations (NPPOs) and their affiliated laboratories to quickly and reliably detect and identify organisms is critical for the effective performance of phytosanitary measures. Plant pest diagnostics is also essential to support the phytosanitary certification of consignments of plants and plant products exported from the EU. Access to reference material has been identified as a limitation on the ability of laboratories to develop and validate diagnostic tests and ensure the reliability of diagnostics. The EU FP7 Q-collect project worked to establish the state of the art of current phytosanitary collections, to identify gaps and propose minimum quality standards, to facilitate access to specimens and to design and build networks of reference collections. The main results of the project are presented in this paper. © 2016 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2016 OEPP/EPPO

Brunel S.,EPPO | Brundu G.,University of Sassari | Fried G.,Laboratoire Of La Sante Des Vegetaux
EPPO Bulletin | Year: 2013

The European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO), in the framework of its activities in the Mediterranean Basin, launched a questionnaire to gather information on eradication actions and control actions for invasive alien plants. Thirty-four (34) eradication actions were reported, 16 occurring in Spain, 7 in Italy, 7 in France, 1 in Portugal, 1 in Malta, and 2 on the southern rim of the Mediterranean, with 1 in Israel and 1 in Tunisia. Twenty-two (22) species were targeted, and the habitats where such actions were undertaken most frequently were coastal dunes, sandy shores and aquatic ecosystems. Most of the species that have been the object of an eradication action were known invasive species recorded in the EPPO lists, such as Ailanthus altissima, Buddleia davidii, Carpobrotus spp., Eichhornia crassipes, Ludwigia peploides, Pennisetum setaceum, Pistia stratiotes, Solanum elaeagnifolium and Sicyos angulatus. Other eradicated species have a limited distribution in the EPPO region and may represent emerging invasive plants, such as Ambrosia confertifolia, Cylindropuntia rosea, Leersia oryzoides, Leptochloa fusca subsp. uninervia and Marsilea drummondii. Control actions concerning 90 species were also reported. A large number of eradication actions, as well as management actions, are therefore happening in Mediterranean countries. At present countries appear to operate with complete autonomy, without consulting neighbouring countries or other stakeholders within the country. There is therefore a need for coordination of new eradication actions. © 2013 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2013 OEPP/EPPO.

Pautasso M.,Animal and Plant Health Unit | Petter F.,EPPO | Rortais A.,Scientific Committee and Emerging Risks Unit | Roy A.-S.,EPPO
CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources | Year: 2015

Emerging plant pests and diseases are a threat to biodiversity, food security and sustainability. In Europe, recent plant health emergencies include European ash dieback (due to the ascomycete Hymenoscyphus fraxineus), the outbreak of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa on olive trees in Apulia, Italy and the invasion by the vinegar cherry fly Drosophila suzukii. The main drivers of new plant health threats are increased long-distance plant trade, climate changes and the adoption of new crops (e.g. biofuels). This overview provides an update on available literature on tools and approaches to assess the risk posed by emerging plant health threats in Europe. In the European Union (EU), as well as in other regions, plant health risk assessment (carried out since 2006 by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)) is clearly separated from risk management decisions (taken by the European Commission and Council through the Standing Committee on Plant Health). The role of the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) is very important as an independent plant health risk assessment body covering the whole of Europe, not just the EU, thus liaising with neighbouring regions such as the Maghreb, Asia Minor and Russia. The main activities and projects of EPPO and EFSA in the domain of emerging plant health risks are summarized. The ongoing revision of the EU plant health regulations is an opportunity to improve biosecurity in the face of both the massive increase in trade of plant commodities and climate change. However, improving regulations (e.g. integrating new tools from evolutionary ecology and network theory) is not a panacea: there is also the need to increase public awareness and engagement, to facilitate interdisciplinary careers related to plant health, as well as to ensure long-term funding for research on emerging risks to plant health. © CAB International 2011.

Roy A.S.,EPPO | Petter F.,EPPO | Griessinger D.,EPPO
EPPO Bulletin | Year: 2010

In 2004, the EPPO Council expressed profound concerns about the decreasing expertise in plant protection and declared a state of emergency for Plant Health ('Madeira declaration'). As diagnostics is one of the scientific fields which are vital for sustaining sound plant health policies, a questionnaire was launched and all EPPO member countries were asked to provide information about their diagnostic expertise, focusing on regulated pests or pests which may present a risk to the EPPO region. In 2006, results of the questionnaire were analysed and compiled by the EPPO Secretariat into a new database. This database now contains detailed information (contact addresses, quality programmes, and accreditations) for 80 diagnostic laboratories from 28 EPPO member countries. More than 500 experts are now registered with details about their diagnostic expertise (pests diagnosed and methods used). The EPPO database on diagnostic expertise can be freely accessed on the Internet: http://dc.eppo.org. © 2010 OEPP/EPPO.

Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav., originating from the Americas, has been unintentionally introduced in all the other continents as a contaminant of commodities, and is considered one of the most invasive plants worldwide. In the Euro-Mediterranean area, it is a huge threat in North African countries. It is also present in European Mediterranean countries (France, Greece, Italy and Spain), but still has a limited distribution. Through a logical sequence of questions, pest risk analysis (PRA) assessed the probability of S.elaeagnifolium entering, establishing, spreading and having negative impacts in European and Mediterranean countries. As this assessment revealed that the entry of the pest would result in an unacceptable risk, pest risk management options were selected to prevent the introduction of the plant. Preventive measures on plants or plant products traded internationally may directly or indirectly affect international trade. According to international treaties, PRA is a technical justification of such international preventive measures. © 2011 The Author. Journal compilation © 2011 OEPP/EPPO.

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