STORRS, CT, United States
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Yu M.,Epitogenesis, Inc. | Vajdy M.,Epitogenesis, Inc.
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy | Year: 2010

Importance of the field: There are currently over thirty million people infected with HIV and there are no vaccines available to prevent HIV infections or disease. The genitourinary, rectal and oral mucosa are the mucosal HIV transmission routes. An effective vaccine that can induce both systemic and local mucosal immunity is generally accepted as a major means of protection against mucosal HIV transmission and AIDS. What the reader will gain: Structure and cells that comprise the oral, vaginal and rectal mucosa pertaining to HIV transmission and vaccination strategies through each mucosal route to prevent mucosal and systemic infection will be discussed. Areas covered in this review: Covering publications from 1980s through 2010, mucosal transmission of HIV and current and previous approaches to vaccinations are discussed. Take home message: Although oral transmission of HIV is far less common than vaginal and rectal transmissions, infections through this route do occur through oral sex as well as vertically from mother to child. Mucosal vaccination strategies against oral and other mucosal HIV transmissions are under intensive research but the lack of consensus on immune correlates of protection and lack of safe and effective mucosal adjuvants and delivery systems hamper progress towards a licensed vaccine. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.


Non-replicating protein- or DNA-based antigens generally require immune-enhancing adjuvants and delivery systems. It has been particularly difficult to raise antibodies against gp120 of HIV-1, which constitutes an important approach in HIV vaccine design. While almost all effort in adjuvant research has focused on mimicking the pathogens and the danger signals they engender in the host, relatively little effort has been spent on nutritive approaches. In this study, a new nutritive immune-enhancing delivery system (NIDS) composed of vitamin A, a polyphenol-flavonoid, catechin hydrate, and mustard oil was tested for its adjuvant effect in immune responses against the gp120 protein of HIV-1 CN54. Following a combination of two mucosal and two systemic vaccinations of mice, we found significant enhancement of both local and systemic antibodies as well as cytokine responses. These data have important implications for vaccine and adjuvant design against HIV-1 and other pathogens. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Introduction: During the past century, vaccinologists have attempted to mimic pathogens in their immune-enhancing capacity. This led to the development of life-saving vaccines based on live attenuated viruses, bacteria and toxoids. Hence, intense research in vaccine adjuvant discovery has focused on toll like receptors, mutant toxins and viral and bacterial vectors. Nutritive components such as vitamins and select polyphenols also possess immunomodulating properties without the potential toxic and adverse side effects of agents that mimic danger signals. Areas covered: This review pertains to immunomodulatory properties of nutritive components, that is vitamins A, C, D, E, flavonoids and plant oils, as potential vaccine adjuvants and delivery systems, covering Pubmed publication searches from 1980 through 2011. Expert opinion: This relatively unexplored field of the potential of nutritive components as vaccine adjuvants holds great promise to promote the development of effective and above all safe vaccines. Hence the future focus should be placed on enhancing their efficacy, mainly through novel approaches in designing structural derivatives, formulations, delivery systems and routes of administration. As safety has been the major issue in development of novel vaccines, this new approach will probably result in new discoveries in designing safe and effective vaccines. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.


Trademark
Epitogenesis, Inc. | Date: 2015-10-20

Nutraceuticals for boosting the immune system, pharmaceutical preparations for treating and/or preventing infectious diseases, cancer, allergies, and/or autoimmune diseases, none of the foregoing constituting or incorporating a prebiotic for use in food and beverages.


The present invention provides adjuvant compositions that are capable of modulating the immune response in a subject, including enhancing or suppressing the immune response. These adjuvant compositions may also be used to enhance or suppress the immunogenicity of antigens by enhancing or suppressing antigen-presentation activity, enhancing or suppressing innate immune responses through activation or suppression of, e.g., natural killer cells, and/or direct activation of subsets of B and/or T cells. Also provided are methods of making the adjuvant compositions as well as methods of using the adjuvant compositions. In certain embodiments, the compositions comprise combinations of the following: a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, a flavonoid, a tannin and a vitamin. The compositions may further comprise an antigen.


Patent
Epitogenesis, Inc. | Date: 2013-03-07

This disclosure provides adjuvant compositions that are capable of modulating the immune response in a subject. These adjuvant compositions may also be used enhance the immunogenicity of antigens. Also provided are methods of making the adjuvant compositions as well as methods of using the adjuvant compositions.


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 600.00K | Year: 2012

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Preventing Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infections represent a critical unmet medical need. Development of an effective vaccine would not only reduce the morbidity associated with these infections, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility, chronic pelvic pain and ectopic pregnancy, but could also reduce collateral riss including HIV transmission. Despite decades of efforts, no vaccine is currently available. The ability to generate a useful vaccine has beenlimited by 1) the lack of an effective method to deliver antigens that will elicit protective humeral and cell-mediated responses, and 2) the identification of specific antigenic sequences that would protect individuals from the Ct strains that cause sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The proprietary nutritive immune-enhancing delivery system (NIDS) developed by EpitoGenesis, Inc. and the broad-based sequence assessment performed by the Dean lab, in addition to the exciting preliminary data on an Ct andHIV-1 vaccine constructs, provide a unique opportunity to finally obtain an efficacious vaccine that can protect against vaginal transmission of Ct through the use of the novel antigenic constructs formulated with the novel, safe and effective NIDS for mucosal and systemic vaccinations. Furthermore, combinations of mucosal and systemic vaccination routes, lack of sequence homology to human antigens, and promising preliminary results from both EpitoGenesis and the Dean lab warrant a novel vaccine design andvaccination approach that hold promise of success. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The proprietary, Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) antigenic constructs developed by Dr. Deborah Dean, and the nutritive immune-enhancing delivery system (NIDS) developed by EpitoGenesis, provide a unique opportunity to develop an efficacious vaccine that can protect against vaginal transmission of Ct.


Patent
Epitogenesis, Inc. | Date: 2015-07-30

This disclosure provides adjuvant compositions that are capable of modulating the immune response in a subject. These adjuvant compositions may also be used enhance the immunogenicity of antigens. Also provided are methods of making the adjuvant compositions as well as methods of using the adjuvant compositions.


Patent
Epitogenesis, Inc. | Date: 2016-02-17

This disclosure provides adjuvant compositions that are capable of modulating the immune response in a subject. These adjuvant compositions may also be used enhance the immunogenicity of antigens. Also provided are methods of making the adjuvant compositions as well as methods of using the adjuvant compositions.


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 224.98K | Year: 2014

Through this project, investigators will evaluate a novel nutritive immune-enhancing delivery system (NIDS) to assess its potential to lower the dose requirement for pandemic influenza vaccines. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE

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