Epilepsy Research Laboratory

Los Angeles, CA, United States

Epilepsy Research Laboratory

Los Angeles, CA, United States
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Lopez-Meraz M.-L.,University of California at Los Angeles | Lopez-Meraz M.-L.,Epilepsy Research Laboratory | Lopez-Meraz M.-L.,University of Veracruz | Wasterlain C.G.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 6 more authors.
Neurobiology of Disease | Year: 2010

The mechanism of status epilepticus-induced neuronal death in the immature brain is not fully understood. In the present study, we examined the contribution of caspases in our lithium-pilocarpine model of status epilepticus in 14 days old rat pups. In CA1, upregulation of caspase-8, but not caspase-9, preceded caspase-3 activation in morphologically necrotic cells. Pretreatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor provided neuroprotection, showing that caspase activation was not an epiphenomenon but contributed to neuronal necrosis. By contrast, upregulation of active caspase-9 and caspase-3, but not caspase-8, was detected in apoptotic dentate gyrus neurons, which were immunoreactive for doublecortin and calbindin-negative, two features of immature neurons. These results suggest that, in cells which are aligned in series as parts of the same excitatory hippocampal circuit, the same seizures induce neuronal death through different mechanisms. The regional level of neuronal maturity may be a determining factor in the execution of a specific death program. © 2009 Elsevier Inc.


Baets J.,University of Antwerp | Duan X.,Mayo Medical School | Duan X.,China Japan Friendship Hospital | Wu Y.,Mayo Medical School | And 26 more authors.
Brain | Year: 2015

We report a broader than previously appreciated clinical spectrum for hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1E (HSAN1E) and a potential pathogenic mechanism for DNA methyltransferase (DNMT1) mutations. The clinical presentations and genetic characteristics of nine newly identified HSAN1E kinships (45 affected subjects) were investigated. Five novel mutations of DNMT1 were discovered; p.C353F, p.T481P, p.P491L, p.Y524D and p.I531N, all within the target-sequence domain, and two mutations (p.T481P, p.P491L) arising de novo. Recently, HSAN1E has been suggested as an allelic disorder of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness and narcolepsy. Our results indicate that all the mutations causal for HSAN1E are located in the middle part or N-terminus end of the TS domain, whereas all the mutations causal for autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness and narcolepsy are located in the C-terminus end of the TS domain. The impact of the seven causal mutations in this cohort was studied by cellular localization experiments. The binding efficiency of the mutant DNMT proteins at the replication foci and heterochromatin were evaluated. Phenotypic characterizations included electromyography, brain magnetic resonance and nuclear imaging, electroencephalography, sural nerve biopsies, sleep evaluation and neuropsychometric testing. The average survival of HSAN1E was 53.6 years. [standard deviation = 7.7, range 43-75 years], and mean onset age was 37.7 years. (standard deviation = 8.6, range 18-51 years). Expanded phenotypes include myoclonic seizures, auditory or visual hallucinations, and renal failure. Hypersomnia, rapid eye movement sleep disorder and/or narcolepsy were identified in 11 subjects. Global brain atrophy was found in 12 of 14 who had brain MRI. EEGs showed low frequency (delta waves) frontal-predominant abnormality in five of six patients. Marked variability in cognitive deficits was observed, but the majority of patients (89%) developed significant cognitive deficit by the age of 45 years. Cognitive function decline often started with personality changes and psychiatric manifestations. A triad of hearing loss, sensory neuropathy and cognitive decline remains as the stereotypic presentation of HSAN1E. Moreover, we show that mutant DNMT1 proteins translocate to the cytoplasm and are prone to form aggresomes while losing their binding ability to heterochromatin during the G2 cell cycle. Our results suggest mutations in DNMT1 result in imbalanced protein homeostasis through aggresome-induced autophagy. This mechanism may explain why mutations in the sole DNA maintenance methyltransferase lead to selective central and peripheral neurodegeneration. © 2015 The Author.


Wasterlain C.G.,Epilepsy Research Laboratory | Wasterlain C.G.,University of California at Los Angeles | Thompson K.W.,Epilepsy Research Laboratory | Thompson K.W.,Occidental College | And 5 more authors.
Neurochemical Research | Year: 2010

During flurothyl seizures in 4-day-old rats, cortical concentration of ATP, phosphocreatine and glucose fell while lactate rose. Cortical energy use rate more than doubled, while glycolytic rate increased fivefold. Calculation of the cerebral metabolic balance during sustained seizures suggests that energy balance could be maintained in hyperglycemic animals, and would decline slowly in normoglycemia, but would be compromised by concurrent hypoglycemia, hyperthermia or hypoxia. These results suggest that the metabolic challenge imposed on the brain by this model of experimental neonatal seizures is milder than that seen at older ages, but can become critical when associated with other types of metabolic stress. © 2010 The Author(s).


Lopez-Meraz M.-L.,University of California at Los Angeles | Lopez-Meraz M.-L.,University of Veracruz | Niquet J.,University of California at Los Angeles | Niquet J.,Epilepsy Research Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Epilepsia | Year: 2010

Status epilepticus in the immature brain induces neuronal injury in the hippocampal formation, but the mode and mechanism of death are poorly understood. Our laboratory has recently investigated the role of caspase-3, -8, and -9 in neuronal injury, using a lithium-pilocarpine model of status epilepticus in 2-week-old rat pups. Our results showed that dying neurons in the dentate gyrus and CA1-subiculum area do not share the same mechanism of death. In CA1-subiculum, caspase-8 upregulation preceded caspase-3 activation in morphologically necrotic neurons. The pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPH reduced CA1 damage, showing that caspases contribute to status epilepticus-induced necrosis. In the dentate gyrus, dying neurons were caspase-9 and -3 immunoreactive and morphologically apoptotic. It is not clear why the same seizures cause different types of cell death in neurons that are connected in series along the same hippocampal circuit, but the apoptotic dentate neurons express doublecortin, and do not express calbindin-D28k, suggesting that their immaturity may be a factor in producing an apoptotic mode of death. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy.


Wasterlain C.G.,Epilepsy Research Laboratory | Wasterlain C.G.,University of California at Los Angeles | Baldwin R.,Epilepsy Research Laboratory | Naylor D.E.,Epilepsy Research Laboratory | And 7 more authors.
Epilepsia | Year: 2011

We used a model of severe cholinergic status epilepticus (SE) to study polytherapy aimed at reversing the effects of seizure-induced loss of synaptic GABAA receptors and seizure-induced gain of synaptic NMDA receptors. Combinations of a benzodiazepine with ketamine and valproate, or with ketamine and brivaracetam, were more effective and less toxic than benzodiazepine monotherapy in this model of SE. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.


PubMed | Epilepsy Research Laboratory
Type: | Journal: Epilepsia | Year: 2011

We used a model of severe cholinergic status epilepticus (SE) to study polytherapy aimed at reversing the effects of seizure-induced loss of synaptic GABA(A) receptors and seizure-induced gain of synaptic NMDA receptors. Combinations of a benzodiazepine with ketamine and valproate, or with ketamine and brivaracetam, were more effective and less toxic than benzodiazepine monotherapy in this model of SE.


PubMed | Epilepsy Research Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Neurochemical research | Year: 2010

During flurothyl seizures in 4-day-old rats, cortical concentration of ATP, phosphocreatine and glucose fell while lactate rose. Cortical energy use rate more than doubled, while glycolytic rate increased fivefold. Calculation of the cerebral metabolic balance during sustained seizures suggests that energy balance could be maintained in hyperglycemic animals, and would decline slowly in normoglycemia, but would be compromised by concurrent hypoglycemia, hyperthermia or hypoxia. These results suggest that the metabolic challenge imposed on the brain by this model of experimental neonatal seizures is milder than that seen at older ages, but can become critical when associated with other types of metabolic stress.

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