Santa Lucia di Serino, Italy
Santa Lucia di Serino, Italy

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Dell'Orso S.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Wang A.H.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Shih H.-Y.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Saso K.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 6 more authors.
Cell Reports | Year: 2016

Histone variants complement and integrate histone post-translational modifications in regulating transcription. The histone variant macroH2A1 (mH2A1) is almost three times the size of its canonical H2A counterpart, due to the presence of an ~25 kDa evolutionarily conserved non-histone macro domain. Strikingly, mH2A1 can mediate both gene repression and activation. However, the molecular determinants conferring these alternative functions remain elusive. Here, we report that mH2A1.2 is required for the activation of the myogenic gene regulatory network and muscle cell differentiation. H3K27 acetylation at prospective enhancers is exquisitely sensitive to mH2A1.2, indicating a role of mH2A1.2 in imparting enhancer activation. Both H3K27 acetylation and recruitment of the transcription factor Pbx1 at prospective enhancers are regulated by mH2A1.2. Overall, our findings indicate a role of mH2A1.2 in marking regulatory regions for activation. © 2016 The Authors.


Simonatto M.,Epigenetics and Regenerative Medicine | Simonatto M.,Sanford Burnham Institute for Medical Research | Simonatto M.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Marullo F.,Epigenetics and Regenerative Medicine | And 9 more authors.
Cell Death and Differentiation | Year: 2013

Previous works have established a unique function of MyoD in the control of muscle gene expression during DNA damage response in myoblasts. Phosphorylation by DNA damage-activated ABL tyrosine kinase transiently inhibits MyoD-dependent activation of transcription in response to genotoxic stress. We show here that ABL-MyoD signaling is also an essential component of the DNA repair machinery in myoblasts exposed to genotoxic stress. DNA damage promoted the recruitment of MyoD to phosphorylated Nbs1 (pNbs1)-containing repair foci, and this effect was abrogated by either ABL knockdown or the ABL kinase inhibitor imatinib. Upon DNA damage, MyoD and pNbs1 were detected on the chromatin to MyoD target genes without activating transcription. DNA damage-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation was required for MyoD recruitment to target genes, as the ABL phosphorylation-resistant MyoD mutant (MyoD Y30F) failed to bind the chromatin following DNA damage, while retaining the ability to activate transcription in response to differentiation signals. Moreover, MyoD Y30F exhibited an impaired ability to promote repair in a heterologous system, as compared with MyoD wild type (WT). Consistently, MyoD-null satellite cells (SCs) displayed impaired DNA repair that was rescued by reintroduction of MyoD WT but not by MyoD Y30F. In addition, inhibition of ABL kinase prevented MyoD WT-mediated rescue of DNA repair in MyoD-null SCs. These results identify an unprecedented contribution of MyoD to DNA repair and suggest that ABL-MyoD signaling coordinates DNA repair and transcription in myoblasts. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


De Angelis L.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Balasubramanian S.,California Institute of Technology | Berghella L.,Epigenetics and Regenerative Medicine
Skeletal Muscle | Year: 2015

Background: The Y-box protein MSY3/Csda represses myogenin transcription in skeletal muscle by binding a highly conserved cis-acting DNA element located just upstream of the myogenin minimal promoter (myogHCE). It is not known how this MSY3 activity is controlled in skeletal muscle. In this study, we provide multiple lines of evidence showing that the post-translational phosphorylation of MSY3 by Akt kinase modulates the MSY3 repression of myogenin. Methods: Skeletal muscle and myogenic C2C12 cells were used to study the effects of MSY3 phosphorylation in vivo and in vitro on its sub-cellular localization and activity, by blocking the IGF1/PI3K/Akt pathway, by Akt depletion and over-expression, and by mutating potential MSY3 phosphorylation sites. Results: We observed that, as skeletal muscle progressed from perinatal to postnatal and adult developmental stages, MSY3 protein became gradually dephosphorylated and accumulated in the nucleus. This correlated well with the reduction of phosphorylated active Akt. In C2C12 myogenic cells, blocking the IGF1/PI3K/Akt pathway using LY294002 inhibitor reduced MSY3 phosphorylation levels resulting in its accumulation in the nuclei. Knocking down Akt expression increased the amount of dephosphorylated MSY3 and reduced myogenin expression and muscle differentiation. MSY3 phosphorylation by Akt in vitro impaired its binding at the MyogHCE element, while blocking Akt increased MSY3 binding activity. While Akt over-expression rescued myogenin expression in MSY3 overexpressing myogenic cells, ablation of the Akt substrate, (Ser126 located in the MSY3 cold shock domain) promoted MSY3 accumulation in the nucleus and abolished this rescue. Furthermore, forced expression of Akt in adult skeletal muscle induced MSY3 phosphorylation and myogenin derepression. Conclusions: These results support the hypothesis that MSY3 phosphorylation by Akt interferes with MSY3 repression of myogenin circuit activity during muscle development. This study highlights a previously undescribed Akt-mediated signaling pathway involved in the repression of myogenin expression in myogenic cells and in mature muscle. Given the significance of myogenin regulation in adult muscle, the Akt/MSY3/myogenin regulatory circuit is a potential therapeutic target to counteract muscle degenerative disease. © 2015 De Angelis et al.


PubMed | Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, U.S. National Institutes of Health and Epigenetics and Regenerative Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cell reports | Year: 2016

Histone variants complement and integrate histone post-translational modifications in regulating transcription. The histone variant macroH2A1 (mH2A1) is almost three times the size of its canonical H2A counterpart, due to the presence of an 25 kDa evolutionarily conserved non-histone macro domain. Strikingly, mH2A1 can mediate both gene repression and activation. However, the molecular determinants conferring these alternative functions remain elusive. Here, we report that mH2A1.2 is required for the activation of the myogenic gene regulatory network and muscle cell differentiation. H3K27 acetylation at prospective enhancers is exquisitely sensitive to mH2A1.2, indicating a role of mH2A1.2 in imparting enhancer activation. Both H3K27 acetylation and recruitment of the transcription factor Pbx1 at prospective enhancers are regulated by mH2A1.2. Overall, our findings indicate a role of mH2A1.2 in marking regulatory regions for activation.


Berghella L.,Epigenetics and Regenerative Medicine | Puri P.L.,Epigenetics and Regenerative Medicine | Puri P.L.,Sanford Burnham Institute for Medical Research
Chemistry and Biology | Year: 2014

Previous work linked nitric oxide (NO) signaling to histone deacetelyases (HDACs) in the control of tissue homeostasis and suggested that deregulation of this signaling contributes to human diseases. In the previous issue of Chemistry & Biology, Kong and colleagues showed that coordinated NO signaling and histone acetylation are required for proper cranial neural crest development and craniofacial morphogenesis and suggested that alterations of NO/acetylation network can contribute to the pathogenesis of craniofacial malformations. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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