Barcelona, Spain
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Jimenez-Fuentes M.A.,Hospital Universitari Vall dHebron | Milaauge C.,Hospital Universitari Vall dHebron | Gomez M.N.A.,Hospital Universitari Vall dHebron | Peiro J.S.,Hospital Universitari Vall dHebron | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE : To evaluate an active case-finding strategy among drug users (DUs), economically disadvantaged individuals and recent immigrants from hyperendemic countries, a population at high risk of developing tuberculosis (TB).METHODS: Retrospective, observational study carried out by the Tuberculosis Unit of the City of Barcelona from September 2009 to December 2012. All participants underwent chest X-ray and were screened for symptoms.RESULTS : Of 5982 participants screened, 30 TB cases were detected (total prevalence 0.5%): 26 were pulmonary, 8 were smear-positive and 2 were resistant to multiple drugs. Directly observed treatment was advised for 19 patients (63%). TB prevalence in the recent immigrants group was significantly greater (1.77%) than in all other groups studied: economically disadvantaged individuals 0.30% (RR 5.9, 95%CI 2.30-15.14); DUs 0.62% (RR 2.05, 95%CI 0.91-4.64), non-recent immigrants 0.41% (RR 4.31, 95%CI 1.68-11.4); and all native-born individuals 0.41% (RR 4.33, 95%CI 1.71-10.92). The rate was much greater than the estimated prevalence for the general population of the city (20 cases/100 000 population).CONCLUSIONS: In high-risk groups, active case finding can be used as a public health intervention to detect a large number of TB cases. © 2014 The Union.


PubMed | LHU Lecce, University of Padua, LHU Ferrara Province, LHU Savona and 12 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Health policy (Amsterdam, Netherlands) | Year: 2014

The demand for referrals and diagnostic procedures in Italy has been rising constantly in recent years, making access to diagnostic services increasingly difficult with significant waiting times. A number of Health Authorities (known as Local Health Units) have responded by implementing formalised waiting-time prioritisation tools, giving rise to what are known as Homogeneous Waiting Groups (HWGs). The study describes the implementation of the HWG approach in Italy. This represents a promising tool for improving the prioritisation of patients waiting to see a specialist or to receive a diagnostic test. The study of the Italian HWG experience provides useful insights to improve the outpatient referral process for those countries where the demand prioritisation policies have focused more on inpatient care than outpatient specialist care and diagnostic services.


de Olalla P.G.,Epidemiology Service | Mazardo C.,University of Barcelona | Sambeat M.A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Ocana I.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 10 more authors.
AIDS Research and Therapy | Year: 2011

Background: Early diagnosis of HIV infection can prevent morbidity and mortality as well as reduce HIV transmission. The aim of the present study was to assess prevalence, describe trends and identify factors associated with late presentation of HIV infection in Barcelona (Spain) during the period 2001-09.Methods: Demographic and epidemiological characteristics of cases reported to the Barcelona HIV surveillance system were analysed. Late presentation was defined for individuals with a CD4 count below 350 cells/ml upon HIV diagnosis or diagnosis of AIDS within 3 months of HIV diagnosis. Multivariate logistic regression were used to identify predictors of late presentation.Results: Of the 2,938 newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals, 2,507 (85,3%) had either a CD4 cell count or an AIDS diagnosis available. A total of 1,139 (55.6%) of the 2,507 studied cases over these nine years were late presenters varying from 48% among men who have sex with men to 70% among heterosexual men. The proportion of late presentation was 62.7% in 2001-2003, 51.9% in 2004-2005, 52.6% in 2006-2007 and 52.1% in 2008-2009. A decrease over time only was observed between 2001-2003 and 2004-2005 (p = 0.001) but remained constant thereafter (p = 0.9). Independent risk factors for late presentation were older age at diagnosis (p < 0.0001), use of injected drugs by men (p < 0.0001), being a heterosexual men (p < 0.0001), and being born in South America (p < 0.0001) or sub-Saharan Africa (p = 0.002).Conclusion: Late presentation of HIV is still too frequent in all transmission groups in spite of a strong commitment with HIV prevention in our city. It is necessary to develop interventions that increase HIV testing and facilitate earlier entry into HIV care. © 2011 de Olalla et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | University of Barcelona, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Direccio General de Serveis Penitenciaris i de Rehabilitacio, Hospital del Mar and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: BMC public health | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to determine the evolution of HIV infection, gonorrhea, syphilis and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), and their epidemiological characteristics in Barcelona city.Population-based incidence study of all newly occurring diagnoses of HIV infection, syphilis, gonorrhea and LGV detected in Barcelona between January 2007 and December 2011. A descriptive analysis was performed. The annual incidence rates per 100,000 inhabitants were calculated by sex, sexual conduct and educational level. To estimate global sex-specific rates we used the Barcelona city census; for the calculation of rates by sexual conduct and educational level we used estimates of the Barcelona Health Interview Survey. Trends were analysed using the chi-squared test for linear trend.HIV. 66.8 % of the HIV cases were men who had sex with men (MSM). The incidence rates in MSM over the study period were from 692.67/100,000 to 909.88/100,000 inh. Syphilis. 74.2 % of the syphilis cases were MSM. The incidence rates in MSM were from 224.9/100,000 to 891.97/100,000 inh. and the MSM with a university education ranged from 196.3/100,000 to 1020.8/100,000. Gonorrhea. 45.5 % of the gonorrhea cases were MSM. The incidence rates in MSM were from 164.24/100,000 to 404.79/100,000 inh. and the MSM with university education ranged from 176.7/100,000 to 530.1/100,000 inh.. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). 95.3 % of the LGV cases are MSM. The incidence rates in MSM were from 24.99/100,000 to 282.99/100,000 inh. and the MSM with university education ranged from 9.3/100,000 to 265/100,000 inh.An increase in cases of STI was observed. These STI mainly affected MSM with a university education. Continuing to monitor changes in the epidemiology of STI, and identifying the most affected groups should permit redesigning preventive programs, with the goal of finding the most efficient way to reach these population groups.


Trape J.,Laboratory Medicine Service | Montesinos J.,Medical Oncology Service | Catot S.,Medical Oncology Service | Buxo J.,Medical Oncology Service | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Biological Markers | Year: 2012

Aims: The objective of the present study is to determine the prognostic value of clinical variables and biomarkers in patients with advanced stages of NSCLC and establish a prognostic classification of these patients. Methods: For 135 patients with advanced NSCLC we determined their clinical variables and their levels of CEA, CA 125, CYFRA 21-1, albumin, LDH, erythrosedimentation and leukocytes. Results: Multivariate analysis identified PS (ECOG) >1, metastases, no anti-neoplastic treatment, CA 125 >35 U/mL, CYFRA 21-1 >3.3 ng/mL and leukocytes >10'000/μL, as independent prognostic factors for survival. Patients were classified into 3 groups according to the number of adverse prognostic factors (APF). One point was assigned for each APF, except for chemotherapy treatment. Patients with 0-1 APF represented our reference group: patients with 2-3 APF had HR=2.7 (95% CI: 1.5-4.6), while patients with 4-5 APF had HR=8.8 (95% CI: 4.6-16.8). This "score" maintained the differences between risk groups both in patients who received antineoplastic treatment and in those who did not. Conclusion: The application of a score that includes clinical data and biomarkers may improve the prognostic classification of NSCLC patients. © 2012 Wichtig Editore.


Arnau B.,Obstetrics and Gynecology Service | Jovell E.,Epidemiology Service | Redon S.,Obstetrics and Gynecology Service | Canals M.,Obstetrics and Gynecology Service | And 2 more authors.
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica | Year: 2013

We investigated the efficacy of 5% lidocaine 25 mg-prilocaine 25 mg/g cream (EMLA®) applied to the uterine cervix for reducing pain during diagnostic or operative hysteroscopy, using a visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain in a prospective randomized, non-blinded, controlled study in 92 successive patients. Patients were randomized to either 3 mL of EMLA cream or 3 mL of ultrasound gel (placebo), placed endocervically and exocervically, 10 min before hysteroscopy. Intensity of pain was evaluated immediately after the procedure using a 10-cm VAS. No differences were found between the two groups (p = 0.07). The number of women who wished to stop the procedure was significantly lower in the EMLA group compared with the control group (p = 0.013). We concluded that topical instillation of EMLA does not decrease pain during hysteroscopy, but does reduce a desire to abandon the procedure. © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.


Mariotti G.,Hospital of Rovereto | Mariotti G.,Italian Society for Quality in Health Care | Gentilini M.,Epidemiology Service | Dapor V.,Information Technology Service
International Journal of Medical Informatics | Year: 2013

Objective: Our main aim was to evaluate the ability of electronic feedback and of an electronic referral decision support system (ERSS) to enhance agreement between primary care physicians (PCPs) and specialists in priority assignment in clinics. Method: 62 PCPs used a ranking system of waiting times based on different categories of clinical priority called 'Homogeneous Waiting Groups' (HWGs), which was also used by specialists to assign a priority category for each patient. From the year 2001, all PCPs had to use a paper-based manual (group 1); instead from 2008, specialists began to use a computer-based tool, whereby the priority category reassigned to each patient by specialists promptly appeared on PCPs' computers (group 2). During the course of 2010, the manual was incorporated in ERSS and was used by a subgroup of PCPs (group 3). Agreement between PCPs and specialists' priority assignments was evaluated by the kappa statistic. Results: In group 1, the kappa statistic was 0.564 (95% CI=0.526-0.602); in group 2, the kappa statistic was 0.668 (95% CI=0.619-0.716); whereas in group 3 (that used ERSS) a very high kappa statistic emerged of 0.883 (95% CI=0.854-0.912). There was a significant difference in the proportion of agreement among the three groups (χ2=182.5, 2df, p<.0001). A significant difference in statistics was also observed in the proportion of priority levels used by PCPs over the years. Conclusions: Our results emphasize the positive effect of feedback and ERSS for improving referral activity and agreement between PCPs and specialists. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


PubMed | Epidemiology Service
Type: Journal Article | Journal: AIDS research and therapy | Year: 2011

Early diagnosis of HIV infection can prevent morbidity and mortality as well as reduce HIV transmission. The aim of the present study was to assess prevalence, describe trends and identify factors associated with late presentation of HIV infection in Barcelona (Spain) during the period 2001-09.Demographic and epidemiological characteristics of cases reported to the Barcelona HIV surveillance system were analysed. Late presentation was defined for individuals with a CD4 count below 350 cells/ml upon HIV diagnosis or diagnosis of AIDS within 3 months of HIV diagnosis. Multivariate logistic regression were used to identify predictors of late presentation.Of the 2,938 newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals, 2,507 (85,3%) had either a CD4 cell count or an AIDS diagnosis available. A total of 1,139 (55.6%) of the 2,507 studied cases over these nine years were late presenters varying from 48% among men who have sex with men to 70% among heterosexual men. The proportion of late presentation was 62.7% in 2001-2003, 51.9% in 2004-2005, 52.6% in 2006-2007 and 52.1% in 2008-2009. A decrease over time only was observed between 2001-2003 and 2004-2005 (p = 0.001) but remained constant thereafter (p = 0.9). Independent risk factors for late presentation were older age at diagnosis (p < 0.0001), use of injected drugs by men (p < 0.0001), being a heterosexual men (p < 0.0001), and being born in South America (p < 0.0001) or sub-Saharan Africa (p = 0.002).Late presentation of HIV is still too frequent in all transmission groups in spite of a strong commitment with HIV prevention in our city. It is necessary to develop interventions that increase HIV testing and facilitate earlier entry into HIV care.


Moreno-Martinez A.,Epidemiology Service | Casals M.,Epidemiology Service | Orcau A.,Epidemiology Service | Gorrindo P.,Epidemiology Service | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) can contribute to the development of tuberculosis (TB). OBJECTIVE: To analyse the prevalence of DM and its associated factors among adults with TB in a large city in an industrialised country. METHODS: This is a population-based study in adults diagnosed with TB between 2000 and 2013 in Barcelona. We studied potentially associated sociodemographic and clinical/epidemiological factors. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Of 5849 TB patients, 349 (5.9%) had DM. The annual prevalence of DM ranged from 4.0% to 7.2%. Factors associated with DM were being Spanishborn (OR 1.46, 95%CI 1.11-1.96), age 740 years (OR 6.08, 95%CI 4.36-8.66), cavitary patterns on chest Xray (OR 1.42, 95%CI 1.08-1.86), experiencing more side effects due to anti-tuberculosis treatment (OR 1.86, 95%CI 1.28-2.64) and hospitalisation at the time of diagnosis (OR 1.8, 95%CI 1.40-2.31). Human immunodeficiency virus infection was associated with a lower probability of DM in both subjects with a history of injection drug use (OR 0.27, 95%CI 0.10-0.57) and those without (OR 0.04, 95%CI 0.002-0.19). CONCLUSIONS: DM prevalence among adults with TB in Barcelona is low and remained stable over the 14-year study period. However, TB patients with DM were potentially more infectious and their clinical management was more complicated. © 2015 The Union.


PubMed | Epidemiology Service
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2015

Diabetes mellitus (DM) can contribute to the development of tuberculosis (TB).To analyse the prevalence of DM and its associated factors among adults with TB in a large city in an industrialised country.This is a population-based study in adults diagnosed with TB between 2000 and 2013 in Barcelona. We studied potentially associated sociodemographic and clinical/epidemiological factors. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Of 5849 TB patients, 349 (5.9%) had DM. The annual prevalence of DM ranged from 4.0% to 7.2%. Factors associated with DM were being Spanish-born (OR 1.46, 95%CI 1.11-1.96), age 40 years (OR 6.08, 95%CI 4.36-8.66), cavitary patterns on chest X-ray (OR 1.42, 95%CI 1.08-1.86), experiencing more side effects due to anti-tuberculosis treatment (OR 1.86, 95%CI 1.28-2.64) and hospitalisation at the time of diagnosis (OR 1.8, 95%CI 1.40-2.31). Human immunodeficiency virus infection was associated with a lower probability of DM in both subjects with a history of injection drug use (OR 0.27, 95%CI 0.10-0.57) and those without (OR 0.04, 95%CI 0.002-0.19).DM prevalence among adults with TB in Barcelona is low and remained stable over the 14-year study period. However, TB patients with DM were potentially more infectious and their clinical management was more complicated.

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