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Atlanta, GA, United States

Kushi L.H.,Kaiser Permanente | Doyle C.,American Physical Society | McCullough M.,Nutritional Epidemiology | Rock C.L.,University of California at San Diego | And 6 more authors.
CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians | Year: 2012

The American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes Nutrition and Physical Activity Guidelines to serve as a foundation for its communication, policy, and community strategies and, ultimately, to affect dietary and physical activity patterns among Americans. These Guidelines, published approximately every 5 years, are developed by a national panel of experts in cancer research, prevention, epidemiology, public health, and policy, and they reflect the most current scientific evidence related to dietary and activity patterns and cancer risk. The ACS Guidelines focus on recommendations for individual choices regarding diet and physical activity patterns, but those choices occur within a community context that either facilitates or creates barriers to healthy behaviors. Therefore, this committee presents recommendations for community action to accompany the 4 recommendations for individual choices to reduce cancer risk. These recommendations for community action recognize that a supportive social and physical environment is indispensable if individuals at all levels of society are to have genuine opportunities to choose healthy behaviors. The ACS Guidelines are consistent with guidelines from the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association for the prevention of coronary heart disease and diabetes, as well as for general health promotion, as defined by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society, Inc. Source

Wang Y.,Epidemiology Research Program
American Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2014

Higher dietary intakes of flavonoids and proanthocyanidins have been associated with a lower risk of several cancers. Few prospective epidemiologic studies have examined individual flavonoids and proanthocyanidins in relation to prostate cancer. We examined these associations in a prospective US cohort of 43,268 men with a mean age of 70 years who completed detailed self-administered questionnaires in 1999-2000. During a mean follow-up of 7.8 years, 3,974 total prostate cancers, including 567 high-grade cases and 362 advanced cases, were ascertained. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate multivariable-adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Residual energy-adjusted total flavonoids (for fifth quintile vs. first quintile, relative risk = 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.23; P for trend = 0.02) and several subclasses were positively associated with overall prostate cancer risk, mostly limited to the top quintile and the first 2 years of follow-up. The associations for total flavonoids, flavan-3-ols, and proanthocyanidins with high-grade prostate cancer risk varied by follow-up time. During follow-up from 2002 to 2009, we observed suggestive inverse trends with higher total flavonoids (P for trend = 0.05) and proanthocyanidins (P for trend = 0.04) with high-grade prostate cancer, but not with advanced prostate cancer. Although evidence is limited, a possible role of total flavonoids and proanthocyanidins in prostate cancer tumor progression deserves further study. © The Author 2014. Source

Teras L.R.,Epidemiology Research Program
American Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2015

The proportion of parents aged ≥35 years at the birth of their child continues to increase, but long-term health consequences for these children are not fully understood. A recent prospective study of 110,999 adult women showed an association between paternal - but not maternal - age at birth and sporadic hematological cancer risk. To further investigate this topic, we examined these associations in women and men in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort. Among 138,003 Cancer Prevention Study-II participants, 2,532 incident hematological cancers were identified between 1992 and 2009. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed by using Cox proportional hazards regression. There was no clear linear trend in the risk of hematological malignancies by either paternal or maternal age. However, there was a strong, positive association with paternal age among participants without siblings. In that group, the hazard ratio for fathers aged ≥35 years compared with <25 years at birth was 1.63 (95% confidence interval: 1.19, 2.23), and a linear dose-response association was suggested (Pspline = 0.002).There were no differences by subtype of hematological cancer. Results of this study support the need for further research to better understand the association between paternal age at birth and hematological malignancies. © 2015 The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. Source

McCullough M.L.,Epidemiology Research Program
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2013

Red and processed meat intake is convincingly associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence, but its impact on prognosis after CRC diagnosis is unknown. We examined associations of red and processed meat consumption, self-reported before and after cancer diagnosis, with all-cause and cause-specific mortality among men and women with invasive, nonmetastatic CRC. Participants in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort reported information on diet and other factors at baseline in 1992-1993, 1999, and 2003. Participants with a verified CRC diagnosis after baseline and up to June 30, 2009, were observed for mortality through December 31, 2010. Among 2,315 participants diagnosed with CRC, 966 died during follow-up (413 from CRC and 176 from cardiovascular disease [CVD]). In multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models, red and processed meat intake before CRC diagnosis was associated with higher risks of death as a result of all causes (top v bottom quartile, relative risk [RR], 1.29; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.59; Ptrend = .03) and from CVD (RR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.67; Ptrend = .08) but not CRC (RR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.51; Ptrend = 0.54). Although red and processed meat consumption after CRC diagnosis was not associated with mortality, survivors with consistently high (median or higher) intakes before and after diagnosis had a higher risk of CRC-specific mortality (RR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.89) compared with those with consistently low intakes. This study suggests that greater red and processed meat intake before diagnosis is associated with higher risk of death among patients with nonmetastatic CRC. Source

Diver W.R.,Epidemiology Research Program
American Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2014

Little is known about the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in nonsmokers who are exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Previous research on NHL and ETS has not included men or examined doses of ETS exposure during childhood. The Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort collected information on smoking habits and exposure to ETS during childhood and adulthood. Among 61,326 never-smoking men and women, 884 incident cases of NHL were identified between 1992 and 2009. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression to identify associations between ETS and NHL risk. Compared with no exposure to ETS as a child or an adult, childhood and/or adult ETS exposure was not associated with NHL overall. There was a positive association between the number of smokers in the house as a child (P for trend = 0.05) and exposure to 6 or more hours per week of ETS as an adult (relative risk = 2.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 5.04) with follicular lymphoma risk. Adult ETS exposure was associated with a lower risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (relative risk = 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.48, 0.97). This study suggests that adult and childhood ETS exposure may affect the risk of NHL, and that the associations differ by histological subtype. © The Author 2014. Source

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